Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and
public health policy realms.”
“The purpose of our study was to examine the altered gene expression associated with nongenotoxic chemical-mediated liver hypertrophy and successive liver tumor promotion. Five-week-old male rats were fed a basal diet or a diet containing phenobarbital (PB) or clofibrate (CF) for 3 days, 4 weeks, and 13 weeks. Hepatic expression profiling of cell growth- and stress-related genes, as well as those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, was performed by DNA microarray and/or real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The induction of liver hypertrophy and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms (CYP2B1/2B2 for PB and CYP4A1 for CF) by PB and CF Panobinostat mouse were clearly observed at all the treatment periods examined. Genes encoding DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) family proteins, in particular GADD45g (GADD45 gamma) were down-regulated by treatment with either Rigosertib nmr PB or CF for 4 and 13
weeks. The chemical-mediated development of liver hypertrophy, induction of hepatic CYPs, and suppression of hepatic GADD45g gene at week 13 disappeared at 4 weeks following cessation of the chemical treatment. Additionally, DNA microarray data indicated that cell cycle-related genes such as cyclins CCNB1 and CCNA2 and Selleck SN-38 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN3 were also down-regulated by treatment with either PB or CF at 13 weeks. Since GADD45 functions as a chemical and radiation stress sensor by interacting with cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, the decrease in the gene expression of GADD45g mRNA observed in this study, may be associated with nongenotoxic chemical-induced tumor promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis
rather than liver hypertrophy.”
“Objective: To determine diet and nutrition practices and the economic and social situation in homes with premature infants.\n\nMaterial and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 100 preterm infants 30 to 36 weeks gestational age, using data obtained on weight, length and head circumference at birth, and whether they were from rural or urban communities. The mothers of premature infants were given a questionnaire to find out the diet and nutrition status, and the economic and social situation in the families. The preterm infants were recruited from Maternal and Child Hospital of Leon, Guanajuato.\n\nResults: The mean gestational age was 34 weeks (26 to 36). The mean weight, length, and head circumference at birth were: 2,007g (659 to 3,750g), 43.7 cm (30 to 52 cm) and 32.4 cm (28 to 35.5 cm), respectively. Almost all mothers (98%) wished to breastfeed.
Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. (C) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. compound inhibitor All rights
“Membrane distillation (MD) is presented for the first time as a real-time, online concentration technique, where the aqueous matrix is removed from the sample to enhance analyte enrichment. Therefore, MD is a universal method for a wide range of compounds and is unlike conventional membrane extractions that rely on the
permeation of the solute into an extractant phase. The MD process showed excellent precision with relative standard deviation between 3% and 5%, linear calibration, and the detection limits for pharmaceutical compounds in the range of 0.01 to 20 mg L(-1) by HPLC-UV analysis. The temperature and flow rate of the feed solution were found to be important variables.\n\n<Figure Category=”Standard” Float=”No” ID=”Figa”> <Caption Language=”En”> <CaptionNumber>Figure</CaptionNumber> <CaptionContent> <SimplePara OutputMedium=”Online”> </SimplePara> </CaptionContent> </Caption> <MediaObject ID=”MO1″> <ImageObject Color=”Color” Format=”GIF” Rendition=”HTML” learn more Type=”LinedrawHalftone” FileRef=”MediaObjects/216_2011_4733_Figa_HTML.gif”/> </MediaObject> </Figure>.”
“Hypothesis: Mesh repair is generally preferred for surgical correction of inguinal hernia, although the merits of endoscopic techniques over open surgery are https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html still debated. Herein, minimally invasive total extraperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty (TEP) was compared with Lichtenstein repair to determine if one is associated with less postoperative pain, hypoesthesia, and hernia
recurrence.\n\nDesign: Prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial.\n\nSetting: Academic research.\n\nPatients: Six hundred sixty patients were randomized to TEP or Lichtenstein repair.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was postoperative pain. Secondary end points were hernia recurrence, operative complications, operating time, length of hospital stay, time to complete recovery, quality of life, chronic pain, and operative costs.\n\nResults: At 5 years after surgery, TEP was associated with less chronic pain (P=.004). Impairment of inguinal sensibility was less frequently seen after TEP vs Lichtenstein repair (1% vs 22%, P<.001). Operative complications were more frequent after TEP vs Lichtenstein repair (6% vs 2%, P<.001), while no difference was noted in length of hospital stay. After TEP, patients had faster time to return to daily activities (P<.
[email protected]) (C) 2009 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine
“Peliosis hepatis is a rare histopathological entity of unknown etiology. We present a case of peliosis hepatis in a 44-year-old man with disseminated tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The diagnosis of peliosis hepatis was based on liver biopsy results which were suggestive of tuberculous etiology. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by auramine stain, rRNA amplification and GNS-1480 inhibitor culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from synovial fluid of the elbow joint. The patient responded favourably to tuberculostatic treatment with four drugs and the early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Histopathological evidence of peliosis hepatis, without an obvious
cause, makes it necessary to rule out tuberculosis, especially in the context of immunodeficiency diseases and immigrants from endemic areas.”
“Objective: The outcome of aortic valve replacement for patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction has been debated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve intervention on survival in that group. Methods: A cohort of 416 consecutive patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area, smaller than = 1 cm(2); mean pressure gradient, smaller than 40 mm Hg) and preserved ejection fraction ( bigger than = 50%) were identified from the Sheba Medical Center echocardiography database. Clinical data, aortic valve intervention, and death GSK2126458 in vivo were recorded. Results: During an average follow-up of 28 months, of 416 study patients (mean age, 76 +/- 14 years, 42% men), 97 (23%) underwent aortic valve intervention and 140 (32%) died. Mantel-Byar analysis showed that the cumulative probability of survival was significantly greater after aortic valve intervention. Multivariate analysis revealed a 49% reduction in the risk of death after surgery (P smaller than .05). The survival benefit of aortic valve intervention
was comparable with adjustment to older age, aortic valve area smaller than = 0.8 cm(2), and a low ( smaller than = 35cm(2)/m(2)) or normal ( bigger than 35 cm(2)/m(2)) stroke volume index. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that aortic valve intervention is associated with improved survival among patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved left Small Molecule Compound Library ventricular function. The presence of either a low or normal stroke volume index did not affect the mortality benefit.”
“Single-electron transmetalation has emerged as an enabling paradigm for the cross-coupling of C-sp(3) hybridized organotrifluoroborates. Cross-coupling of alpha-alkoxymethyl-trifluoroborates with aryl and heteroaryl bromides has been demonstrated by employing dual catalysis with a combination of an iridium photoredox catalyst and a Ni cross-coupling catalyst. The resulting method enables the alkoxymethylation of diverse (hetero)arenes under mild, room-temperature conditions.
001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting
earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during Sapanisertib mouse S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of
morbidity AZD1480 nmr and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor
cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at Selleckchem SCH727965 the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.
The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are variationally optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The calculated state energies are compared with the available experimental data. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3698584]“
“Purpose: To determine the rates of globe-sparing treatment and useful final visual function in patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas treated with multidisciplinary therapy.\n\nMethods: The medical records of 14 patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinoma treated at 1 institution were retrospectively reviewed.\n\nResults:
The patients were 9 men and 5 women; the median age at diagnosis was 58.5 years (range, 45-73 years). Seven patients presented with epiphora, 7 with a palpable VS-4718 chemical structure mass in the inferomedial orbit, and 2 with dacryocystitis. In 3 patients, the diagnosis of cancer was not considered
until during or after dacryocystorhinostomy. Seven patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 2 transitional cell carcinoma, 2 adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 1 each adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation. Nine QNZ solubility dmso patients underwent surgical resection of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct and resection of the medial upper and lower eyelids, including canaliculi, partial ethmoidectomy, and medial maxillectomy. One patient underwent lacrimal sac biopsy only as another primary malignancy was check details discovered during the work-up for systemic disease. Four patients underwent orbital exenteration because of extensive involvement of the orbital soft tissue. Radiotherapy was recommended for 13 patients; in 1 patient, radiotherapy was not recommended because the patient had an inverted papilloma with carcinoma in situ transformation that was completely excised. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy. Eight patients received chemotherapy either concurrent with radiation therapy (5 patients), as neoadjuvant treatment (1 patient), or for progressive or metastatic disease (3 patients). The median follow-up time was 27 months (range, 6-96 months). In
10 patients, the globe was spared. In 9 of these 10 patients, visual acuity was the same as at baseline or better than 20/40 at last follow up.\n\nConclusions: With multidisciplinary therapy, the eye can be spared and reasonable visual function can be preserved in most patients with primary lacrimal sac/nasolacrimal duct carcinomas.”
“Objective: To investigate experimentally the time dependent changes of latency, amplitude, threshold of neural response in injured rat facial nerve in a nerve-crush trauma model.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g (12-16 week), were grouped for permanent and transient nerve injury during time course analysis of electrophysiological changes at 1st week, and 1st, 3rd and 6th months.
Am J Phys Anthropol 141:452-462, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Rationale: NFATc1 ( nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1) activity in endocardial cushion (ECC) endothelial cells is required for normal ECC growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during heart valve development.\n\nObjective: The mechanisms of NFATc1 activation and downstream effects on cell proliferation and ECM-remodeling enzyme gene expression were examined in NFATc1 mutant mice and chick ECC explants.\n\nMethods
and Results: NFATc1(-/-) mice display reduced proliferation of ECC endothelial and mesenchymal cells at embryonic day 10.5, whereas myocardial cells are unaffected. Vascular endothelial growth factor A ( VEGF) activates NFATc1 and promotes ECC cell proliferation via the regulatory selleck products phosphatase, calcineurin, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated YH25448 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor kinase 1-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK1-ERK1/2)-dependent signaling. As ECCs mature, RANKL ( receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand) and the ECM-remodeling enzyme cathepsin K (CtsK) are expressed by ECC endothelial cells. RANKL inhibits VEGF-induced cell proliferation while causing increased expression of CtsK via calcineurin/NFATc1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2-dependent signaling.\n\nConclusion: These data support a novel mechanism
for the transition from ECC growth to remodeling in which NFATc1 promotes a sequential pattern of gene expression via cooperation with ligand-specific cofactors such as MEK1-ERK1/2 or JNK1/2. ( Circ Res. 2009; 105: 565-574.)”
“Objective: Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for the evaluation of patients with kidney disease, and for correct dosage of drugs that are eliminated from the circulation by the kidneys. In most cases GFR
is estimated based on serum creatinine and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. As both cystatin C and creatinine are used for the determination of GFR it is important to investigate if estimated GFR by the two methods differ in various patient groups.\n\nDesign and methods: We have compared cystatin C and MDRD estimated NU7441 GFR calculated from the same request from primary care units (n=488), a cardiology ward (n=826), the cardiointensive care unit (n=1026), two oncology wards (n=919 and 1021), and the neurosurgical intensive care unit (n = 1515) in an observational cross-sectional study.\n\nResults: We found better agreement between the two GFR estimates in samples from primary care patients and patients in the cardiology wards, than in samples from oncology wards or the neurosurgical intensive care unit. In the latter settings there was a pronounced difference between the two GFR estimates.
We present eight patients with symptomatic, self-limiting pen-electrode edema post-DBS electrode implantation who presented post-operatively with distinct clinical presentations with imaging that revealed a hypodense area in the white matter surrounding the DBS electrode. Local and systemic tests for infection were negative. The edema resolved over time without surgical intervention. The etiology of the edema remains obscure. The transient nature of the edema and benign course with rapid and full resolution in all
our patients cautions against any hasty decision to explant the electrode, in the absence of any obvious signs of infection. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: We analyzed the efficacy of continuous renal QNZ cell line replacement therapy (CRRT) combined with blood transfusion for patients with crush syndrome CBL0137 datasheet from an earthquake.\n\nMethods:
Eight patients with crush syndrome were included. CRRT were performed in six of eight patients with crush syndrome, and transfusion was performed in all eight patients. Routine blood tests, urea nitrogen, creatinine, blood coagulation function, electrolyte levels, and serum myoglobin were determined and analyzed.\n\nResults: Two patients regained their health completely, four patients required amputation but recovered well, and two patients died. The total amount of red blood cells transfused Stem Cell Compound Library in the eight cases was 521 U (mean volume = 68.25 U). CRRT was performed 164 times in six patients (mean 27.33 times per person). The routine blood test results and coagulation and renal function parameters improved obviously (P < 0.05) in the six surviving patients.\n\nConclusions: Sufficient blood transfusion
and early dialysis treatment effectively improved the conditions of patients with crush syndrome. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Recruitment to primary care trials, particularly those involving young children, is known to be difficult. There are limited data available to inform researchers about the effectiveness of different trial recruitment strategies and their associated costs. Purpose To describe, evaluate, and investigate the costs of three strategies for recruiting febrile children to a community-based randomised trial of antipyretics. Methods The three recruitment strategies used in the trial were termed as follows: (1) local’, where paediatric research nurses stationed in primary care sites invited parents of children to participate; (2) remote’, where clinicians at primary care sites faxed details of potentially eligible children to the trial office; and (3) community’, where parents, responding to trial publicity, directly contacted the trial office when their child was unwell.
2% men) aged 25-64 years, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile [triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides] and fasting leptin were measured. Homeostasis
Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated.\n\nResults. Leptin concentrations were 2.6 fold higher in women compared with men. Subjects with MetS had significantly higher leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations increased steadily with an increment in the number of MetS components (p <0.001). Leptin was significantly associated with MetS after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking, medication use, physical activity, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C. The significant association between leptin and MetS persisted after adjustment for
body mass index (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.58 in males and 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.38 in females) and waist JQ-EZ-05 mouse circumference (OR: 1.24 95% CI: 1.01-1.51 in men and 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43 in women). After dividing subjects into obese and nonobese, leptin concentrations were again significantly higher in subjects with MetS in both groups.\n\nConclusions. We demonstrated that leptin concentrations are significantly associated with International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined MetS, independent of overall and central obesity. Our findings point to an independent role for leptin in development of MetS. (C) 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty as to the significance of a high sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) for achieving a successful pregnancy.\n\nMETHODS: The sperm DFI of 124 patients undergoing ASP2215 price 192 IVF cycles and of 96 patients undergoing 155 ICSI cycles was determined using the sperm chromatin structure assay on neat sperm.\n\nRESULTS: The rate of continuing pregnancies in ICSI cycles (but not in IVF cycles) showed significant negative correlation (r = 0.184, P = 0.022) with the DFI value. A threshold value of DFI which
showed a significant difference (P = 0.005) in rate of continuing selleck chemical pregnancies between higher and lower DFI levels was found for ICSI cycles to be >= 19%, but no such threshold was found for IVF cycles. However, if the threshold of >= 30% was used for IVF cycles there was a non-significant lowering of the rates of continuing pregnancy and implantation at the higher DFI levels. DFI level had no effect on fertilization rate or on the percentage of embryos having more than 4 cells at Day 3 after fertilization. A high DFI level had a marked significant effect (P = 0.001) on implantation rate in ICSI cycles but not in IVF cycles. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.268, P = 0.001) between DFI and sperm midpiece defects was also noted in the ICSI patients.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: These observations may help to resolve the issues about how, and to what extent, sperm DNA damage impacts upon the success of IVF and ICSI procedures.
The mortality rate of this disease is as high as 25 to 80%, despite aggressive surgical treatment and antifungal therapy. This high mortality requires alternative treatment approaches. The accepted treatment modality of invasive mucormycosis are amphotericin
B lipid formulations. Although echinocandins generally show no activity against Mucorales, it was shown that Rhizopus oryzae expressed the target enzyme for echinocandins, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase. Additionally, there are some experimental studies in a diabetic mouse model and case reports regarding the effects of caspofungin. In this report, we present a rhinocerebral mucormycosis case treated with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. There was regression of the patient’s clinical https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cx-4945-silmitasertib.html and radiological condition with the addition of caspofungin, but she died due to discontinuation of her treatment and reasons other than mucormycosis. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Spinal segments show non-linear Natural Product Library clinical trial behavior under axial compression. It is unclear to what extent this behavior is attributable to the different components of the segment. In this study, we quantified the separate contributions of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs to creep
of a segment. Secondly, we investigated the contribution of bone and osteochondral endplate (endplates including cartilage) to the deformation of the vertebral body.\n\nFrom eight porcine spines a motion segment, a disc and a vertebral body were dissected and subjected to mechanical testing. In an additional test, cylindrical samples, machined from the lowest thoracic
vertebrae of 11 porcine spines, were used to compare the deformation of vertebral bone and endplate. All specimens were subjected to three loading cycles, each comprising a loading phase (2.0 MPa, 15 min) and a recovery phase (0.001 MPa, 30 min).\n\nAll specimens displayed substantial time-dependent height changes. Average creep was the largest check details in motion segments and smallest in vertebral bodies. Bone samples with endplates displayed substantially more creep than samples without. In the early phase, behavior of the vertebra was similar to that of the disc. Visco-elastic deformation of the endplate therefore appeared dominant. In the late creep phase, behavior of the segment was similar to that of isolated discs, suggesting that in this phase the disc dominated creep behavior, possibly by fluid flow from the nucleus.\n\nWe conclude that creep deformation of vertebral bodies contributes substantially to creep of motion segments and that within a vertebral body endplates play a major role. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
6333 to 0.9697 respectively. The PIC value ranged from 0.757 to 0.913, indicated all the loci are high polymorphism. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected and only one locus deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci could provide useful information for the genetic analyses of S. bealei populations.”
the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) KPT-8602 was reported 40 years ago. Although it has been demonstrated in papers that these IVF oocytes using sperm freshly collected from cauda epididymides can be developed to term via embryo transfer, successful IVF with cryopreserved rat sperm has never been reported to date. Here, we report establishment of a successful IVF system using frozen/thawed rat spermatozoa. Our data showed that intracellular cAMP and free cholesterol levels in frozen/thawed rat sperm were maintained low, suppressing capacitation-associated tyrosine phosphorylation. The treatment of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin improved removal of free cholesterol from the membrane in frozen/thawed sperm but not induction of capacitation-associated tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm. Treatment with a phosphodiesterase selleckchem inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthin (IBMX), dramatically increased cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation levels in frozen/thawed rat sperm. When the IBMX-treated frozen/thawed sperm were used for IVF, the
proportions of pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation were significantly higher than those of frozen/thawed sperm treated without IBMX (P < 0.05). The embryos were developed to term at a high success rate equivalent to the rate
obtained with IVF using fresh sperm. Thus, we established for the first time a successful IVF system in rats using cryopreserved spermatozoa.”
“It is well known that large dose of leucine reduces the food intake and causes growth retardation in experimental animals when leucine is given with a low-protein diet. However, the mechanism for the anorectic effect of leucine has not yet been clarified. We demonstrate here that the anorectic effect of leucine was significantly reduced in a vagotomized rat.”
“Mannion DJ, McDonald JS, Clifford CWG. Orientation anisotropies in selleck chemical human visual cortex. J Neurophysiol 103: 3465-3471, 2010. First published April 21, 2010; doi:10.1152/jn.00190.2010. Representing the orientation of features in the visual image is a fundamental operation of the early cortical visual system. The nature of such representations can be informed by considering anisotropic distributions of response across the range of orientations. Here we used functional MRI to study modulations in the cortical activity elicited by observation of a sinusoidal grating that varied in orientation. We report a significant anisotropy in the measured blood-oxygen level-dependent activity within visual areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A/B in which horizontal orientations evoked a reduced response.