Superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity was evaluated based

Superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity was evaluated based on the method of Robak and Gryglewski (1988) with slight modifications. Reagents for the assay consisted of 150 μM nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), 468 μM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and 60 M phenazine methosulphate (PMS) in phosphate buffered saline. An aliquot of 50 μl of extract, at different concentrations (0–1000 μg/ml),

was mixed with 50 μl of NBT, 50 μl of NADH and 50 μl of PMS. After incubation in the dark for 10 min at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 570 nm. Gallic acid, BHT, quercetin and rutin were used as positive GDC-0941 ic50 controls and analysed as above. Results were calculated as percentage inhibition of the O2- radicals, MEK inhibitor review using a similar formula as for the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The EC50 was calculated and expressed as μg/ml. Nitric

oxide scavenging activity of the plant extracts was measured using a modification of the method described by Awah et al. (2010). Twenty-five microlitres of the extract, at different concentrations (0–1000 μg/ml), were mixed with a 25 μl freshly prepared 5 mM sodium nitroprusside solution in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.3). The mixture was then incubated for 60 min under a visible polychromatic light (150 W). Griess reagent (50 μl), containing equal volumes of 1% sulfanilamide in 5% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and 0.1% of naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride was added to the mixture and incubated for 5 min before absorbance was read at 550 nm. BHT, gallic acid, ascorbic acid and rutin were used as positive controls. Results were calculated, following the equation for DPPH-radical scavenging activity

and expressed as a percentage (%) of NO radical-scavenging activity. The EC50 was also calculated. The aqueous extract was prepared as described in Section 2.3 and lyophilised. The dried extract (5 mg) was mixed with 2 ml of 1.2 N HCl containing 20 mM sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DETC) in a glass vial before GPX6 being hydrolysed in a heating module with stirring capacity (Pierce Reacti-Therm Heating/Stirring Module No. 18971, Illinois, USA) at 90 °C for 2 h (Aziz, Edwards, Lean, & Crozier, 1998). The hydrolysate was then cooled and filtered through a 0.20 μm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane filter prior to chromatographic analysis. Separation of polyphenols in the plant extract was achieved using an UHPLC method on an Agilent 1290 Infinity LC system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) equipped with a binary pump, diode array detector and an autosampler. Separation of polyphenols was achieved on a C18 Zorbax Eclipse Plus column (50 × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 μm) (Agilent, Germany) at room temperature, using a modified method of Hung, Hatcher, and Barker (2011). Five microlitres of the sample were injected into the system. Mobile phase A consisted of 0.

Phenolic compounds from fermented rice bran were extracted with m

Phenolic compounds from fermented rice bran were extracted with methanol at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v), following the method described by Souza, Oliveira, Rocha, and Furlong (2010). Samples of 5 g were subjected to orbital shaking (150 rpm) at room temperature for 3 h with methanol and the extract obtained was filtered through filter paper (Whatman n° 4) into a separating funnel and washed three times with 10 mL of hexane. The methanolic extract was evaporated on a rota-evaporator at 50 °C under reduced pressure and the phenolic compounds were resuspended with 10 ml of distilled water in an ultrasonic bath for 10 min. The resulting extract was clarified with 5 ml of 0.1 M ZnSO4

and 5 mL of 0.1 M Ba(OH)2, and allowed to rest for 20 min. After centrifugation (10 min, 25 °C, 3200g,) the supernatant containing the phenolic

compound was collected, lyophilized and quantified Bcl-2 inhibitor spectrophotometrically selleck products at 750 nm with Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (Qell, Brazil) using ferulic acid (Sigma, Japan) as standard (2–20 μg/ml). Phenolic extracts were resuspended in water and methanol (1:1), and 20 μL aliquots injected into a chromatograph (Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan, CLASS-M10A) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at 35 °C. The separation of the phenolic acids was accomplished using a C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm, Discovery®, USA) and a gradient isocratic solvent consisting of methanol and acidified water (1% v/v acetic acid) at a 20:80 ratio during 25 min, with UV detection at 280 nm until 15 min and 320 nm until 25 min. Phenolic acids were identified by comparison of retention times and absorption spectrum with different standards of phenols present in rice bran (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric,

ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillin, obtained from Sigma–Aldrich, USA) as described in the literature ( Mira et al., 2008 and Pourali et al., 2010). The detection limit (LOD) was calculated by the background Protein kinase N1 noise signal (solution containing the solvents used in the extraction of phenolic compounds) at 3:1. The determination limit (LOQ) was established as three times the amount of the LOD ( Ribani, Bottoli, Collins, Jardim, & Melo, 2004). The phenolic antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined according to the methods described by Rufino et al., 2009 and Sánchez-Moreno et al., 1998 and Brand-Wiliams, Cuvelier, & Berset, 1995 measured by the reduction in free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH). This method is based on the transfer of electrons from one antioxidant substance to a free radical, DPPH, which loses its purple colour upon reduction, becoming yellow. Different concentrations of solutions of ascorbic acid (0.01–0.1 mg/mL), ferulic acid (0.01–1 mg/ml), fermented and unfermented rice bran (0.01–0.

92 h, water content of 50 72% and temperature of 28 85 °C SSF is

92 h, water content of 50.72% and temperature of 28.85 °C. SSF is a technology that can propose alternative paths for

the reuse of agro-industrial waste, therefore decreasing possible environmental problems, as well as adding economic value to these co-products. The authors are thankful to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for granting the ITI (Industrial Technology Initiation) scholarship, and the Northeast SCH 900776 solubility dmso Brazil Bank (BNB) for granting financial support. “
“Proteases comprise the class of enzymes most used worldwide, accounting for 60% of the world’s total enzyme production (Gupta, Beg, & Larenz, 2002). This is due to the diversity of applications that these proteins, mainly alkaline proteases, have in various industries, e.g. food, detergents, pharmaceuticals (Espósito et al., 2009a and Klomklao et al., 2005). Several studies report that fish viscera can be used as an important source of CP-690550 clinical trial alkaline proteases (Bezerra et al., 2005, Khantaphant and Benjakul, 2010, Klomklao et al., 2009a and Souza et al., 2007). These residues, which are usually discarded, represent a significant source of these enzymes. The use of alkaline proteases from aquatic organisms, especially trypsin, has markedly increased in recent years, since some proteases are stable and active under harsh conditions (high temperature

and pH) and in the presence of surfactants or oxidising agents (Espósito et al., 2009b and Klomklao et al., 2005). Furthermore, the recovery of proteolytic enzymes from fish viscera represents an interesting alternative

when the aim is to minimise the economic losses and ecological hazards caused by this waste (Bougatef et al., 2007 and Souza et al., 2007). Trypsin (EC is one of the most studied fish digestive proteases. This enzyme belongs to the serinoproteases family and is responsible for many biological processes, e.g. protein digestion itself, zymogen activation and mediation between the ingestion of food and assimilation of nutrients (Klomklao, Benjakul, Visessanguan, Kishimura, & Simpson, 2007). Trypsins have been extracted, purified and characterised from the viscera of various commercial fish, such as Oreochromis niloticus ( Bezerra et al., 2005), Katsuwonus pelamis ( Klomklao et al., 2009a) and Lutjanus vitta ( Khantaphant & Benjakul, 2010). Tropical regions are home to a large diversity of fish species with distinct feeding habits, which explain the differences among enzyme compositions of these organisms. The carnivorous fish, pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), is considered the largest freshwater fish in the world, reaching over 200 kg in weight and up to three metres in length, whose geographic distribution area predominantly covers the Amazon basin ( Nelson, 1994). A. gigas is considered a species of considerable commercial interest, and is one of the most highly priced species in the Brazilian fish market.

, 2005) For adults, direct exposure to PFOS and PFOA was estimat

, 2005). For adults, direct exposure to PFOS and PFOA was estimated by Vestergren et al. (2008) to contribute > 92% to the total intake of these two chemicals in a low- and intermediate-exposure scenario, whereas in a high-exposure scenario precursors contributed 50–60% to the total PFOS and PFOA exposure. Direct RG7204 order exposure via diet was estimated to be a major exposure pathway; however, the dietary contribution to the estimated intakes was likely overestimated. Using an improved analytical method, Vestergren et al. (2012) later showed that PFOS and PFOA concentrations in food samples had previously been overestimated by an order of magnitude. Since 2008 more

literature data have become available on PFAAs and precursors in exposure media. Precursors to C4, 6, 8, 10, 12 PFCAs, such as 4:2–12:2 FTOHs and PAPs have been reported in exposure media (De Silva et al., 2012, Gebbink et al., submitted for publication and Langer et al., 2010), however, how much these precursors contribute to human PFCA exposure as an indirect exposure pathway has so far not been investigated. Also, temporal trend studies have reported on declining PFAA and precursor concentrations in food (Gebbink et al., submitted for publication and Ullah et al., 2014). Based on

mammal studies, exposure to PFAAs could result in hepatotoxic, Crizotinib ic50 developmental, immunotoxic, and hormonal effects (Lau et al., 2007). In human serum samples, the PFOS isomer pattern has been reported to vary widely, containing between 17% and 52% branched isomers of total PFOS. However, serum samples generally contain a higher percentage of branched isomers relative to linear PFOS compared to ECF isomer pattern (30% sum branched isomers of total Cediranib (AZD2171) PFOS) (Beesoon et al., 2011, Glynn et al., 2012, Gützkow

et al., 2012, Karrman et al., 2007, Rylander et al., 2009 and Zhang et al., 2013b). The mechanisms or processes causing this enrichment of branched isomers in blood are not fully understood. In rats and humans, isomer-specific differences in uptake and elimination rates for linear and branched PFOS isomers have been observed (Benskin et al., 2009a, De Silva et al., 2009 and Zhang et al., 2013a). Also, reported differences in biotransformation rates of branched and linear precursor isomers could influence the PFOS isomer pattern (Benskin et al., 2009b and Peng et al., 2014). PFOS and/or precursor isomers have been identified and quantified in several human exposure media; however, the data are still limited. PFOS isomer patterns have been reported in dust, food, and drinking water, while for PFOS precursors only the FOSA isomer pattern was reported in drinking water (Beesoon et al., 2011, Filipovic and Berger, in press and Gebbink et al., submitted for publication). To date, there is no information available regarding the overall PFOS isomer pattern humans are exposed to via multiple direct and indirect exposure pathways.

Quantitative analysis was performed using a one-point curve metho

Quantitative analysis was performed using a one-point curve method using external standards of authentic ginsenosides. Total

RNA was extracted from the frozen samples with the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) including the DNase I digestion step. Next, 2 μg total RNA was reverse transcribed with the RevertAid H Minus M-MuLV reverse transcriptase (Fermentas, Hanover, MD, USA). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed using 100 ng cDNA in a reaction volume of 10 μL using SYBR Green Sensimix Plus Master Mix (Quantace, Watford, UK). The thermal cycler conditions recommended by the manufacturer were used: 10 min at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles at 95°C for 10 s, 60°C for 10 s, and 72°C for 20 s. The fluorescent product was detected during the final step of each cycle. Amplification, detection, see more and data analysis were carried out on a Rotor-Gene 6000 real-time rotary analyzer (Corbett Life Science, Sydney, Australia). The primers used were 5′-CCT CGC CAG ATT TGG AGT AA-3′ and 5′-GCA CAG AAC CGG AAG ATA GC-3′ for PgSS (AB115496); 5′-GAT GTG CCT GGA CAA AAG GT-3′ and 5′-AGG ATG GCG CGC ATA TTG AAA G-3′ for PgSE (AB122078); 5′-GAG AGA TCC GAC ACC TCT GC-3′ and 5′-ATT TTG AGC TGC TGG TGC TT-3′. To determine the relative fold-differences in template abundance for each sample, the Ct values for each of the gene-specific primers were

normalized to the Ct value for β-actin (5′-AGA CAL-101 in vitro GAT TCC GCT GTC CAG AA-3′ and

5′-ATC AGC GAT ACC AGG GAA CA-3′) and calculated relative to a calibrator using the formula 2−ΔΔCt. The values of the ginsenoside contents and relative gene expression were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analyses were carried out using GraphPad Prism software (San Diego, CA, USA) by one-way analysis of variance. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to test for significant differences between Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) the treatments at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01. The ginsenoside contents of the ginseng leaves and roots were evaluated at different foliation stages. As a perennial herbal plant, ginseng leaves fall and sprout annually, with flowers and berries developing in the 3rd yr of growth. As shown in Fig. 1, we sampled three different stages of leaves, which we referred to as (a) “closed”, (b) “intermediate”, and (c) “opened”, from 3-yr-old ginseng plants cultured by hydroponics. When the ginseng plants sprouted, their leaves appeared closed (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) and they had an average leaf length of 3 cm, an average shoot height of 7 cm, and an average main root length of 9 cm (Fig. 1Ba). In this early developmental stage, the flower bud was already formed, although the peduncle was short (Fig. 2A). In the intermediate leaf stage (Fig. 2A), the average leaf length was 4.5 cm and the average peduncle length was 4.5 cm. After foliation, the leaves expanded (Fig. 2A) and the flower buds started to bloom (Fig.

Several studies have shown that removal of the glycosyl

Several studies have shown that removal of the glycosyl group in ginsenosides is required for enhancement of physiological action of ginsenosides [13]. Various transformation methods including mild acid hydrolysis [14], enzymatic conversion [15], and microbial conversion [16] have been used, but these chemical methods result in side reactions such as epimerization, hydration, and hydroxylation, and most microbial transformations do not reach a food-grade standard. In our previous study [17], the treatment of enzymes

such as Optidex and Viscozyme increased total sugar, uronic acid, polyphenol, and solid contents, and reduced the bitterness of red ginseng extract. In addition, conversions of ginsenosides were observed; Rb2 and Rc were converted into Rg3 or Rh2, and Rb1 was transformed into Rg3 following enzyme treatment. In this study, various hydrolytic enzymes were subsequently examined in red ginseng

extract treated by amylase, with the purpose of increasing the amounts of ginsenoside metabolites as well as their conversions into aglycones. Therefore, we investigated the effects of each enzyme treatment on the chemical composition and the transformation of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract. Six-yr-old red ginseng was purchased at a ginseng market in Geumsan, Korea. Standard ginsenosides, including compound K, Rh2, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg2, Rg3, Rg1, Rf, Re, Enzalutamide clinical trial Road, Rb2, Rc, and Rb1, were purchased from Embo Laboratory in Daejeon, Korea. Spezyme prime, Optidex

L-400 (Genencor International Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA), Viscozyme (Novo Nordisk Ferment Ltd, Dittingen, Switzerland), Econase CE, Rapidase, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 (obtained from Bision Biochem, Sungnam, Korea) were also used. The characteristics of enzymes Chorioepithelioma are summarized in Table 1. All other chemicals were obtained from local suppliers and were of reagent grade. Red ginseng powder (200 g) was suspended in 1 L of distilled water, and the pH of the solution was adjusted to pH 6 with 2N NaOH. Spezyme prime (4 mL) was added to the red ginseng suspension. The red ginseng suspensions were incubated at 85°C for 12 h. Optidex L-400 (4 mL) was added to the suspensions followed by incubation at 60°C for 4 h after Spezyme treatment for 12 h. After hydrolysis, the reaction was terminated by boiling for 15 min [17]. The hydrolyzed mixtures were extracted twice with 3 L of ethanol under reflux in a water bath at 90°C for 2 h. The extract was then centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 30 min. This supernatant was evaporated to 10 brix. The concentrate was used for bioconversion with enzymes. The concentrate was used as a substrate for enzymatic conversion by various enzymes. One wt% enzyme was added for a conversion reaction in optimal conditions as illustrated in Table 1. After the enzymatic conversion, the reaction was terminated by boiling for 15 min.

041) A similar increase in RP has been reported by other authors

041). A similar increase in RP has been reported by other authors upon the roasting process in oats [41]. In Table 5, the antioxidant learn more activity of RG was stronger than that of WG, and the antioxidant activity of ERG was stronger than that of EWG. Similar conclusions were made by Norajit et al [42] who found that the alginate film containing RG exhibited a greater antioxidant activity than that containing WG. It is widely known that the Maillard reaction products influence the antioxidant activity of plants. Sharma and Gujral [43] have reported that dark color pigments (brown color) are created during the thermal

processing of foods due to Maillard browning. Because the Maillard reaction may produce antioxidative compounds, as found by Bressa et al [44], other researches have demonstrated that thermal processing may increase the antioxidant activity of sweet potatoes [45] and sweet corn [38]. Furthermore, Manzocco et al [46] concluded that the pigments (particularly melanoidins) are extensively known to have antioxidant activity. The increase in antioxidant activity could be explained by the formation of Maillard browning pigments, which enhanced the antioxidant activity of extruded products [47]. Another reason for the increase in antioxidant activity could be due to the increase in TPC. Similarly, the

potential health benefit of phenolics is mainly attributed to their antioxidant activity [48]. According to the correlation analysis, the TPC was significantly (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with DPPH radical scavenging activity (r = 0.9255) and RP (r = 0.9525). This means that the increase of TPC may partially contribute to the increase in antioxidant properties of extruded products Rapamycin in our findings. In general, the antioxidant potentials of plants derive from synergism, antagonism, and additivity of various compounds [49]. The antioxidant activity is affected by the quantity and kind of free radical scavengers present in the material, and a slight difference in measuring

method may lead to apparently different results from the same sample. We investigated the effects of extrusion cooking on the physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng. Extrusion cooking exhibited a significant effect on physical properties (WAI, WSI, color, and dispersibility) of extrudates. Also, extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in the effective components, such as acidic polysaccharides and total phenolics. Extrusion cooking was observed to have no significant effect on the ginsenoside content. Enzyme treatment significantly increased the content of acidic polysaccharides of extrudate compared with nonextrudate. After extrusion, the increase in the DPPH radical scavenging activity of EWG and ERG were 13.56% and 3.56%, respectively, whereas the increase in RP assay of EWG and ERG was 0.038 and 0.026, respectively.

It is very important to consider that the BMI in patients with le

It is very important to consider that the BMI in patients with left-side hemiplegia was greater than in patients with right-side hemiplegia. However, obesity (BMI greater than 30) leads to significant reductions in spirometric parameters, a fact not observed in the sample with left-side hemiplegia. Given the physiologic position of the diaphragm domes and the entire affected musculature on the paralyzed side, right-side hemiplegia suggests greater impairment of the respiratory system when compared to left-side hemiplegia. However, we observed that the respiratory system is able to compensate for small changes in diaphragmatic mobility in order

to maintain ventilation, evidenced by normal vital capacity data. Low PEF and FEF25–75% Baf-A1 reflects trunk muscle dysfunction and, regardless of compromised cupulae, hemiplegic patients suffer from reduced cough effectiveness. This has a direct effect on mucociliary clearance, predisposing these individuals to respiratory tract infections, as well as increased morbidity, mortality and hospitalizations. “
“Several studies have provided preclinical data regarding the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in sepsis (Gonzalez-Rey et al., 2009, Nemeth et al., 2009 and Mei et al., 2010). The administration of MSCs 24 h before and 1 h

after surgery has been evaluated in experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (Nemeth et al., 2009), resulting in decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release, as well as peritoneal, renal, and liver vascular permeability. A further report showed that treatment with human or murine adipose-derived MSCs improved survival and organ dysfunction in a sepsis check details model (Gonzalez-Rey et al., 2009). A recently published study (Mei

et al., 2010) has also demonstrated that intravenous MSC therapy was effective at reducing systemic and pulmonary inflammation as well as enhancing bacterial clearance, resulting in lower mortality. So far, however, no study in experimental polymicrobial sepsis has elucidated whether the early beneficial effects of cell therapy observed on lung and distal organs were preserved late in the course of injury. In the current study, we employed bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMCs), which are safely administered on the day of harvesting, to test the hypothesis that cell therapy at an early phase of CLP-induced sepsis may have lasting effects on: (1) respiratory mechanics, (2) lung histology, (3) the structural remodelling of lung parenchyma, (4) lung, kidney and liver cell apoptosis, and (5) pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. These parameters were studied early (one day) and late (seven days) after sepsis induction. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Centre, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

During the acute phase (Day 14), H&E staining colon tissue from m

During the acute phase (Day 14), H&E staining colon tissue from model animals showed: increasingly

severe inflammatory lesions extensively throughout the colon; significant and complete loss of crypts; surface erosion with exuberant inflammatory exudates; patchy re-epithelization; lamina propria fibrosis with acute and chronic Proteasome inhibitor inflammatory infiltrate; submucosal edema; and mixed inflammatory cell infiltration. In the AG group, mucosa had tightly packed glands with a normal amount of goblet cells (Fig. 3A). The disease severity, scored by the DAI, reached its highest level on Day 8. Fig. 3B shows significant effects of AG on the reduction of the DAI score (p < 0.05). This suppression of the experimental colitis by the herb was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS administration (i.e., Day 8), suggesting that AG significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Fig. 4A is a representative macroscopic morphology for the control group, model group, and AG group. Obvious tumorigenesis was observed

in the model group. However, in the AG treatment group, the tumor number and size were significantly less and relative small. Fig. 4B shows representative find more H&E staining histological sections of the three groups. In the colon tissue from the model animals, multifocal adenomatous lesion was observed, and there was no invasion into submucosa; there was mild inflammation with cryptitis, mild degree loss of goblet cells, fibrosis, and apoptotic changes. For the AG treatment group, mucosa shows tightly packed glands with a normal amount of goblet cells while crypt architecture remained normal. Compared to the model, the histological sections of the AG treatment group are more similar to those science of the control group. Fig. 4C shows colon carcinogenesis data. Our results showed that compared to the model group, AG treatment very significantly reduced the total number of colon tumors and load of tumors (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Tumor distribution data reflected this reduction, in which the number of large tumors (1–2 mm and > 2 mm) decreased while the number

of small tumors (< 1 mm) increased. Previous studies have shown that blockade of inflammatory cytokines significantly decrease the severity of colitis. To explore mechanisms of inhibition of AOM/DSS induced colitis and tumorigenesis by AG treatment, using an ELISA array, we determined proinflammatory cytokine levels in the colon tissues collected on Day 14. Colonic levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, G-CSF, and GM-CSF were markedly elevated in the DSS model group. Treatment with AG significantly inhibited the levels of those 12 cytokines by 44%, 35%, 42%, 39%, 46%, 34%, 37%, 44%, 51%, 40%, 46%, and 37%, respectively (p < 0.05; Fig. 5).

Our results confirm that, by

exporting contaminated parti

Our results confirm that, by

exporting contaminated particles originating from the main inland radioactive plume, coastal rivers are likely to have become a significant Etoposide and perennial source of radionuclide contaminants to the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima Prefecture. This could at least partly explain the still elevated radionuclide levels measured in fish off Fukushima Prefecture (Buesseler, 2012). Quantification of the hydro-sedimentary connectivity between hillslopes and the identified sinks in the three coastal catchments provided additional information on the timing of sediment transfer processes and their preferential pathways observed along the investigated rivers (Fig. 6). Paddy fields located in the upstream part of both Nitta

and Mano River catchments were well connected to the thalweg and they constituted therefore an important supply of contaminated material to the rivers or to small depressions located in the floodplain. In contrast, in the flat coastal plains of those catchments, large cultivated surfaces were poorly connected to the rivers. A distinct situation was observed in the Ota River catchment. In the upper part of this catchment, land use is dominated by forests that are much less erodible than cropland, but that could deliver contaminated material to the river during heavy rainfall (Fukuyama et al., 2010). Furthermore, the high slope gradients observed in this area may have led to the more frequent occurrence of mass movements in this area. This contaminated material was then stored in the large Yokokawa reservoir (Fig. 6a). In the downstream part of the Ota River catchment, paddy click here fields located in the vicinity of rivers were well Montelukast Sodium connected to the watercourses which contrasts with the situation outlined in the coastal

plains of the Mano and Nitta River catchments (Fig. 6b). This transfer timing and preferential pathways are confirmed when we plot the contamination in total 134+137Cs measured in sediment collected during the three fieldwork campaigns along the longitudinal profiles of the investigated rivers (Fig. 7). Overall, we observed a general decrease in the contamination levels measured between the first and the last campaign, especially in the Nitta River catchment (Fig. 7, left panels) where the difference is particularly spectacular along the upstream sections of the Nitta (Fig. 7; profile c–d) and Iitoi Rivers (Fig. 7; profile g–e). Our successive measurements suggest that there has been a progressive flush of contaminated sediment towards the Pacific Ocean. However, the mountain range piedmont and the coastal plains that have remained continuously inhabited constitute a potentially large buffer area that may store temporarily large quantities of radioactive contaminants from upstream areas. However, our data and the drawing of the longitudinal profiles suggest that this storage was of short duration in the river channels.