Conclusion Our preliminary study demonstrated that salidroside ca

Conclusion Our preliminary study demonstrated that salidroside can provide a protective effect against epirubicin-induced GDC 0449 early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer, and the protective effects IWP-2 provided by salidroside may be explained by its reduction of oxidative stress. Acknowledgments Hua Zhang and Wei-sheng Shen contributed equally to this study. This project was supported by WuXi Health (grant no. ZXM0806). None of the authors have any conflicts of interest that are directly relevant

to the content of this article. References 1. Minotti G, Menna P, Salvatorelli E, et al. Anthracyclines: molecular advances and pharmacologic developments in antitumor activity and cardiotoxicity. Pharmacol Rev 2004; 56: 185–229.PubMedCrossRef 2. Elliott P. Pathogenesis of cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines. Semin Oncol 2006; 33: S2–7.PubMedCrossRef 3. Zhou X, Wu Y, Wang X, et al. Salidroside production by hairy roots of Rhodiola sachalinens is obtained after transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30: 439–42.PubMedCrossRef 4. Wu T, Zhou H, Jin Z, et al. Cardioprotection of salidroside from ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing N-acetylglucosamine linkage

to cellular proteins. Eur J Pharmacol 2009; 613: 93–9.PubMedCrossRef 5. Mercuro G, Cadeddu C, Piras A, et al. Early epirubicin-induced myocardial dysfunction revealed by serial tissue Doppler echocardiography: correlation with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Oncologist 2007; 12: 1124–33.PubMedCrossRef 6. Mantovani G, Maccio A, Madeddu C, et al. Quantitative evaluation of oxidative stress, chronic inflammatory indices and leptin in cancer patients: correlation with stage and performance status. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 84–91.PubMedCrossRef 7. Jensen BV, Skovsgaard T, Nielsen SL. Functional monitoring of anthracycline cardiotoxicity: a prospective, blinded, long-term observational study of outcome in 120 patients. Ann Oncol 2002; 13: 699–709.PubMedCrossRef 8. Mantovani Astemizole G, Madeddu C, Cadeddu C, et al. Persistence, up to

18 months of follow-up, of epirubicin-induced myocardial dysfunction detected early by serial tissue Doppler echocardiography: correlation with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Oncologist 2008; 13: 1296–305.PubMedCrossRef 9. Jassal DS, Han SY, Hans C, et al. Utility of tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging in the early detection of trastuzumab and anthracycline mediated cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009; 22: 418–24.PubMedCrossRef 10. Ferreira AL, Matsubara LS, Matsubara BB. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2008; 6: 278–81.PubMedCrossRef 11. Zweier JL, Talukder MAH. The role of oxidants and free radicals in reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res 2006; 70: 181–90.PubMedCrossRef 12. Becker LB.

The experiment was repeated several times and produced similar re

The experiment was repeated several times and produced similar results. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. N. Mocetinostat chemical structure europaea can use the siderophore ferrioxamine for its iron uptake after a 3 to 4 day lag period suggesting that

the ferrioxamine uptake system in N. europaea requires induction [13, 14]. When N. europaea fur:kanP mutant was grown in Fe-limiting media containing ferrioxamine, there was no lag phase (Figure 5B) indicating that the ferrioxamine uptake system was already induced in the fur:kanP mutant. Effect of fur:kanP mutation on induction of Fe-regulated outer membrane proteins in N. europaea Previous studies have shown that N. europaea grown in Fe-limited medium stimulated expression of several Fe-regulated PXD101 supplier outer membrane proteins (TonB-dependent receptors) with molecular masses of ~ 80 kDa [13, 14]. To determine whether the expression of these proteins was regulated by fur, the N. europaea wild type and the fur: kanP mutant strains were cultured in Fe-replete and Fe-limited media and their

total outer membrane proteins were isolated. SDS-PAGE analysis of the outer membrane protein profiles demonstrated that fur:kanP mutant shared a major protein band (Figure 6) with wild type cells grown in Fe-limited media irrespective of the concentration of iron in the medium. This band contained several TonB-dependent OM Fe3+-siderophore receptors [13, 14]. This result is consistent with the model in which the TonB-dependent receptors with putative roles in iron uptake are regulated by fur

[6]. Figure 6 SDS-PAGE Analysis of total membrane proteins. N. europaea wild type and fur:kanP mutant in Fe-replete (10 μM) (lanes 1, 3) and Fe-limited (0.2 μM) media (lanes 2, 4). Over-expression of proteins with molecular weights similar to outer membrane Vorinostat ic50 Fe-siderophore receptors indicated by * was observed in fur:kanP mutant in both Fe-replete and Fe-limited media. Effect of fur:kanP mutation on Fe and heme c contents of N. europaea Fur deficient mutants generally express iron transport systems constitutively (with respect to iron), and have increased free cellular iron levels (although total cellular iron levels are actually reduced, due to low levels of iron-storage and iron-containing proteins) [43, 44]. To determine the effect of fur:kanP mutation on iron contents of N. europaea, wild type and fur:kanP mutant cells were cultured in Fe-replete and Fe-limited media and their total cellular iron contents were measured by ICP-OES analysis. N. europaea Fe-limited cells showed significantly (P-value <0.0001) lower total cellular iron contents compared to Fe-replete cells irrespective of the fur mutation as observed previously (Table 2) [14]. The fur:kanP mutant had 1.5-fold significantly (P-value <0.001) more total cellular iron than the wild-type cells when grown in Fe-replete media (Table 2). The total iron contents of wild type and the fur:kanP mutant did not show significant (P-value = 0.

Cyanobacteria, that appeared earlier in evolution contain membran

Cyanobacteria, that appeared earlier in evolution contain membrane-associated phycobilisomes (see e.g., (Neilson and Durnford 2010)) with a pigment-to-protein ratio that is substantially lower (~1:5) although still higher than for the core complex. For recent studies of

EET in/from phycobilisomes in vitro and in vivo the reader is referred to Tian et al. (Tian et al. 2011, 2012). The PFT�� cell line present review will focus on light harvesting in plants. The thylakoid membrane in plants is divided into grana, which are composed of stacks of membrane disks, and stroma lamellae, which connect the various grana in the choroplast Blasticidin S molecular weight (Mustardy and Garab 2003; Shimoni et al. 2005; Mustardy et al. 2008; Daum et al. 2010; Kouril et al. 2011). PSII is located in

the grana (Andersson and Anderson 1980) whereas PSI is mainly present in the stroma lamellae (together with the ATP synthase). The thylakoid membrane is flexible and dynamic and able to respond to changes in environmental conditions by changing both composition and organization of the PSII supercomplexes (Anderson et al. 2008; click here Chuartzman et al. 2008; Goral et al. 2010). It has been shown that part of the grana membrane contains PSII arrays that consist of supercomplexes with different antenna sizes, but the abundance of the arrays seems to depend on the composition of PSII which for instance depends on the species analyzed and on the growth conditions (Boekema et al. 2000; Kouril et al.; Daum et al. 2010; Kirchhoff et al. 2007; Methocarbamol Kouril et al. 2012; Kiss et al. 2008) (Kereiche et al. 2010; Kovacs et al. 2006; de Bianchi et al. 2008). Only part of the PSII supercomplexes is embedded in these regular arrays, while another part is less organized. It is not exactly clear yet what the role of the arrays and the other parts is. But it is known that reorganizations in both arrays and other parts take place as a function

of light quality and intensity (Wientjes et al. 2013; Kouril et al. 2012; Jahns and Holzwarth 2012; Betterle et al. 2009). In Fig. 2, a model of a plant PSII supercomplex is shown. It is composed of a PSII core together with the gene products of genes Lhcb1-6 in a well-defined arrangement. The largest supercomplexes contain a dimeric core, four LHCII (encoded by Lhcb1-3) trimers, two strongly bound (S) and two moderately strongly bound (M), and two monomeric copies each of CP29 (Lhcb4), CP26 (Lhcb5), and CP24 (Lhcb6). Supercomplexes of different sizes can be isolated (Caffarri et al. 2009), which is probably partly due to the solubilization process but it is also known that a sub-population of smaller supercomplexes is also observed in high light plants (see e.g., (Daum et al. 2010; Kouril et al. 2012)). Fig. 2 Model of the PSII supercomplex C2S2M2 from higher plants. Top-view for the stromal side on a C2S2M2 supercomplex from A. thaliana.

Such an interaction prevents the Subunit C from participating in

Such an interaction prevents the Subunit C from participating in the assembly of the Vacuolar Subcomplex (V0 Subcomplex) that is required for the formation of the mature V-ATPase on the vacuolar membranes [19]. This significantly delays the proteolytic endosomal degradation of the internalized EGFr that eventually recycles to the

plasma membrane. This extend the EGFr lifespan and increases the EGF dependent/EGFr signalling [20, 21] suggesting that the interaction with the subunit C check details represent an elective function of E5. Conversely, other authors believe that the impairment of V-ATPase and consequent delayed degradation of internalized EGFr is an indirect result of trafficking disruption Selleckchem Repotrectinib and impaired fusion of early endosomes with late acidic endosomes [22, 23]. The pH modulation is very important in the regulation of cell organellar trafficking and function in many cellular strains. In particular intra-melanosomal pH has been indicated as an essential factor for the control of melanin deposition in melanocytes [24]. Melanogenesis is regulated through the modulation of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the melanogenic pathway. Differences in tyrosinase activity of melanocytes from different

skin photo types (Caucasian or Black skin) have been reported [25]. It has also been shown that these differences were not due to variations in tyrosinase abundance or gene activity, but to the regulation of catalytic activity tuclazepam of the enzyme [25]. In fact, near neutral melanosomal pH is optimal for human tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis while melanin production is suppressed in Caucasian melanocytes by low melanosomal pH [24]. Accordingly, tyrosinase mRNA and tyrosinase protein are actually present also in amelanotic melanomas, where no tyrosinase activity and no melanin deposition can be detected [26, 27]. The probable reason of the declined catalytic activity in these cells, where tyrosinase is present in a inactive state, is the low internal pH due to elevated V-ATPase activity consequent to elevated glycolysis and extra-cellular

SIS3 acidification occurring during the metastatic spread. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that substances that act as selective inhibitors of V-ATPase [28, 29] are able to determine the re-activation of tyrosinase and melanogenesis and melanotic reversion of amelanotic melanomas [26]. In the present work we expressed the HPV 16 E5 protein in two lines of human, tyrosinase-positive, amelanotic melanomas with the aim to examine whether the E5 expression could modulate the melanosomal pH and tyrosinase activity. Here we provide evidence that HPV-16 E5 protein inhibits proton pump, causing alkalinisation of endocellular pH, tyrosinase activation, melanin deposition and modulation of sensitivity to dopamine mimetic drugs.

The TFFBR also contains a pump, by which the water flow rate can

The TFFBR also contains a pump, by which the water flow rate can be controlled. The main advantages of this TFFBR are (i) its high optical efficiency, (ii) it’s simple construction

method and (iii) the low investment costs involved in development. Further advantages are that oxygen transfers effectively into the water film and there is no need for TiO2 separation from the treated water, in contrast to reactors based on TiO2 slurries. An understanding of the mechanism of microbial photoinactivation during solar photocatalysis comes mostly from studies of bacteria [5, 7, 21]. The most common photocatalytic inactivation mechanism described is based on inactivation due to hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) when bacteria come in contact with a solar-excited photosensitiser. GSK690693 cost This photooxidation process Tozasertib mw causes cell membrane disruption and increase cellular permeability,

with significant cell damage that eventually results in complete inactivation of the bacteria [13]. The conventional approach to assessing the viability of bacteria during solar disinfection is to enumerate samples after exposure to sunlight, using conventional plate counts on a suitable agar-based growth medium with incubation of plates in standard aerobic conditions (e.g. 24 h incubation at a suitable temperature). However, recent studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), derived mainly from aerobic respiration during the enumeration process, may inactivate sub-lethally Demeclocycline damaged bacteria and prevent their growth and enumeration under aerobic conditions [22]. Such injured cells can only be cultured and counted under conditions where reactive oxygen species are neutralised (ROS-neutralised conditions) e.g. by supplementing the growth medium with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate and incubating under anaerobic conditions

to prevent cellular respiration, allowing the bacteria to grow by fermentation [22–24]. This approach was taken in the present study; uninjured bacteria were AZD1480 in vivo enumerated under aerobic conditions while uninjured plus injured (ROS-sensitive) bacteria were enumerated under ROS-neutralised conditions, with the difference between the counts under both sets of conditions representing the number of injured bacteria in the sample. Even though bacteria have received more attention than other groups of microbes in solar photocatalysis research, bacterial pathogens of fish have been largely ignored in these studies, prompting the study reported here. Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium, known to be a primary fish pathogen [25]. A. hydrophila tends to be virulent towards most cultured and wild freshwater fish, especially trout, salmon, carp, catfish and tilapia. Red fin diseases and haemorrhagic septicaemia are mainly associated with A. hydrophila [26]. Antibiotics and several vaccines have been used to treat these infections, but extensive use of antibacterial agents has caused A.

A closer inspection reveals that most clusters are surrounded by

A closer inspection reveals that most clusters are surrounded by dark holes in the substrate which indicates that even at RT, metallic

adsorbate reacts with Ge. The formation of Ni-induced structural defects in semiconductor surfaces has been widely reported in the literature of the subject, e.g., [20]. click here Figure 1 Empty-state STM image showing the formation of clusters after Ni deposition onto Ge(111)-c(2 × 8) surface at RT. The initial Ni coverage is approximately 0.1 ML. The image size and bias voltage are 80 × 80 nm2 and 1.5 V, respectively. Inset: small-scale (30 × 25 nm2) image zoomed from the large area showing that clusters have a tendency to accumulate at boundaries between the different c(2 × 8) domains. Figure 2 shows the Ag/Ge(111)-√3 × √3 surface with 0.1 ML Ni deposited at RT. Here, clusters seem to be randomly distributed Selleckchem PI3K Inhibitor Library without concentrating at the terrace edges, which indicates that the surface diffusion 4EGI-1 chemical structure of the species at RT is suppressed. In the area between the clusters, a defect-free √3 × √3 structure is clearly resolved (see inset in Figure 2) which suggests that

there is no chemical reaction between the deposit and the surface. Therefore, we argue that the clusters are composed of pure Ni atoms rather than Ni-Ge compounds. Figure 2 Filled-state STM image taken after deposition of 0.1 ML Ni onto Ag/Ge(111)-√3 × √3 surface at RT. The image size is 80 × 80 nm2, and the bias voltage is -1.6 V. Inset: small-scale (24 × 22 nm2) image showing this website that clusters are randomly distributed on the surface. Annealing the surfaces with deposited materials within the range from 470 to 770 K results in the appearance of a variety of objects. While most of them appear only on either Ni/Ge(111)-c(2 × 8) surface (Figure 3) or Ni/Ag/Ge(111)-√3 × √3 surface (Figure 4), some structures commonly form on both of them (Figure 5). Figure 3 STM images showing Ni-induced structures on Ge(111)-c(2 × 8) surface. (a) Ring-like defects in single

and trimer configurations. Inset: 7 × 7 nm2 filled-state image taken at a sample bias of -0.6 V, showing ring-like defects. (b) 2√7 × 2√7 islands are enclosed by solid circles, whereas the 3 × 3 island is enclosed by a dotted circle. Insets: 12 × 10 nm2 images of the same 2√7 × 2√7 island taken at a positive (upper inset) and a negative (lower inset) bias voltage. (c) Empty-state image of a magnified 3 × 3 island. Inset: 13 × 15 nm2 filled-state image of the same island. Image size is indicated in each image. The notations in left upper corners represent the specified structures. Corresponding schematic diagrams against a background of the Ge(111)-c(2 × 8) structure are shown in right half parts. Figure 4 Empty-state STM images showing Ni-containing structures on Ag/Ge (111)-√3 × √3 surface. (a) Triple-hole defects which appear after annealing between 470 and 570 K. (b) Long islands (enclosed by circles) which appear after annealing above 670 K.

[47], Vibrio cholerae [24] and Pseudomonas stutzeri [25] Both ML

[47], Vibrio cholerae [24] and Pseudomonas stutzeri [25]. Both MLEE and MLRT showed European strains selleck kinase inhibitor to be more heterogeneous than the Indian strains. MLEE revealed that each of the 15 strains from France and Germany had distinct electrophoretic profiles indicating their heterogeneity.

MLRT also revealed that the European strains, which displayed 5 RTs were more heterogeneous compared to Indian isolates. Genetic heterogeneity of European biovar 1A strains has been reported earlier using PFGE [48] and FAFLP [39]. A previous study using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis also identified 13 MLVA types among 15 European biovar

1A strains [19]. This suggests that European and Indian strains may constitute separate groups and might be evolving independently in two selleck screening library different settings. It would be interesting to explore these evolutionary aspects by comparative whole genome sequencing or multilocus sequence typing of Indian and European strains. It was also observed that strains with different serotypes (O antigen) types produced identical ETs or RTs AZD1480 purchase and were closely related genetically. Also, in some cases, same O antigen was shared by strains that were different genotypically. These observations indicate O antigen switching in strains of Y. enterocolitica as suggested recently by MLST [49]. Such observations have however been reported in other bacteria also [24, 41, 50]. Thus, given the enormous discriminatory power of genotyping techniques such observations also emphasize the need to discuss threadbare, the question of suitability of widely used typing techniques like serotyping. Conclusion More diversity was observed among clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A when MLEE was used. Sixty-two electrophoretic types were identified among 81 strains,

which clustered into four distinct groups. oxyclozanide MLRT identified 12 restriction types and was distinctly less discriminatory, clustering the strains into two groups. The BURST analysis of the MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from those present in the aquatic environments. Acknowledgements SM acknowledges Senior Research Fellowship from Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India. The research grants to JSV from Department of Biotechnology, Indian Council of Medical Research and University of Delhi to strengthen R & D doctoral research programme are acknowledged gratefully. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Representative restriction profiles of six genes of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A.

060) The 5-year survival rates of patients with primary

060). The 5-year survival rates of patients with primary PARP inhibitor & prior history of cGVHD + and primary & prior history of cGVHD – were 64% and 25%, respectively. Discussion Our data showed that allo-HCT resulted in long-term disease remission and an eventual cure of Q VD Oph active leukemia in a subset of de novo AML or ALL patients with marrow blast ≤ 26% and without poor-risk cytogenetics, possibly by graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated through cGVHD. A retrospective

study with a large cohort using data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research demonstrated that pre-transplant variables delineated subgroups with different long-term allo-HCT outcomes in adult patients with acute leukemia not in remission [9]. However, they did not address the effect of cGVHD on survival. Baron et al. have reported that extensive cGVHD was associated with decreased risk of progression or relapse in patients with AML or MDS in complete remission at the time of nonmyeloablative HCT [16]. However, it remains unclear whether cGVHD is associated with long-term disease control in patients who have active leukemia at transplant.

The results of the current study showed that GVL effects mediated by cGVHD may play a crucial role in long-term survival in or a cure of active leukemia, especially in patients without poor-risk cytogenetics. Selleckchem DMXAA Further study on the possible relationship between cGVHD and GVL effects would be very helpful in the management of immunosuppressive treatment. For patients who were ineligible for myeloablative conditioning due to comorbidities coupled with rapidly progressive leukemia, we administered sequential cytoreductive chemotherapy, followed by reduced-intensity conditioning for allo-HCT in order to reduce toxicity and obtain sufficient anti-leukemic efficacy. The utility of the combination of sequential cytoreductive chemotherapy and reduced-intensity conditioning for allo-HCT was previously reported [17]. Our results did not show that this sequential regimen had an advantage in controlling why active leukemia. However, we speculated that effective tumor

reduction by individual chemotherapy and/or conditioning for allo-HCT to control disease until cGVHD subsequently occurred might also be important, particularly in rapidly proliferating leukemia. In contrast, intensive conditioning did not appear to be essential in relatively indolent leukemia, even with non-remission. Based on our results, CB might be unsuitable as a source of stem cells for treatment of active leukemia at the time of allo-HCT. However, most patients receiving CBT could not wait for an unrelated donor search because their disease tended to be aggressive compared with those in the unrelated BM group. Thus, it is difficult to arrive at any conclusions about the best stem cell source for allo-HCT in patients in non-remission status based solely on our results.

Meanwhile, the increase of CCR7 chemokine receptor

Meanwhile, the increase of CCR7 chemokine receptor expression promotes tumor growth and metastasis. When the latter effect is prominent, the Momelotinib cell line tumor disseminates. Under normal conditions, CCR7 is expressed on T cells. When malignancy occurs, the neoplastic T cell may enhance the expression of CCR7. The differential expression of CCL21 by endothelial cells might explain at least one part of this process. Our results support the chemotaxis theory that CCL21 expression co-mediates the dissemination of primary tumors to different organs [19]. Hasegawa [20] found that adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells with high CCR7 expression have increased directional migration capability toward CCL21, which

suggests that CCR7 expression may facilitate ATLL cell movement to the high endothelial vein of lymph nodes with abundant

CCL21, and then to metastasis. The influence of CCL21 on lymphatic dissemination (compared Fedratinib with hematogenous) has not been investigated thus far, but CCL21 is also highly expressed in lymph nodes, and CCR7 inhibition results in suppression of breast cancer lymph node metastases, which implies similar pathways for lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination [10]. PI3K/Akt, an intracellular signal pathway, plays a role in the invasion of many malignant tumors. Whether PI3K/Akt participates in the invasion and metastasis of T cell lymphomas induced by CCR7 and if a relationship exists between them remains unclear. The PI3K/Akt signal pathway was first found in the 1990′s. The catalysate of PI3K can participate in cellular proliferation, living, differentiation, and migration [21]. Receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) activation results in PI(3,4,5)P(3) and PI(3,4)P(2) production by PI3K at the inner side of the plasma membrane. Akt interacts with these phospholipids, causing its translocation to the inner membrane, where it is phosphorylated and activated by PDK1 and PDK2. The activated Akt

modulates the function of numerous substrates which are involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression, and cellular growth. Several studies have proven that Akt expression is excessively upregulated in GPX6 many malignant tumors, such as thyroid carcinomas, gliomas, breast carcinomas, pulmonary carcinomas, and so on [22–26]. As a protein kinase, Akt is activated through phosphorylation. The upregulation of Akt protein may promote oncogenesis and tumor growth. The expression level of phosphorylated-Akt is the indicator of the kinase activity. In our experiment, the expression levels of PI3K mRNA, Akt mRNA, and p-Akt protein in Hut 78 cells were higher than that in Jurkat cells. The Hut 78 cells were more invasive than the Jurkat cells. The invasiveness of T-NHL is associated with the CCR7 expression. CCR7 is a transmembrane receptor of GTP-protein. CCR7 may activate Akt and the PI3K/Akt signal pathway to promote cell proliferation and spread.

J Occup Environ Med 46:398–412CrossRef Hennekens CB, Buring B, Ma

J Occup Environ Med 46:398–412CrossRef Hennekens CB, Buring B, Mayrent S (1987) Epidemiology in medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Boston Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1992) Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology 3(5):452–456CrossRef Ilmarinen J (2009) Work ability—a comprehensive concept for occupational health research and prevention. Scand J Work Environ

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to considerable productivity loss at work among workers with high physical load jobs. J Clin Epidemiol 58:517–523CrossRef Pelfrene E, Vlerick P, Mak R, de Smet P, Kornitzer M, de Backer G (2001) Scale reliability and validity of Karasek ‘Job Demand-control-support’ model in Belstress. Work Stress 15:297–331CrossRef Schultz AB, Edington DW (2007) Employee health and presenteeism: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil 17:547–579CrossRef Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) (1999) 15.0 ed. SPSS, Chicago, IL Tuomi K, Ilmarinen J, Jahkola A, Katajarinne L, Tulkki A (1998) Work ability index. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki van den Heuvel SG, IJmker S, Blatter BM, de Korte EM (2007) Loss of productivity due to neck/shoulder symptoms and hand/arm symptoms: results from the PROMO-study. J Occup Rehabil 17:370–382CrossRef Werner EL, Cote P (2009) Low back pain and determinants of sickness absence. Eur J Gen Pract 15:74–79CrossRef”
“Introduction Noise is an important occupational health hazard, with a high prevalence in the construction industry.