(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“The Ep

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), check details which allows the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs derived from intronless genes, is essential for the production of infectious virions.

An important feature of mRNA export factors is their capacity to shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In a previous study, we identified a novel CRM1-independent transferable nuclear export signal (NES) at the N terminus of EB2, between amino acids 61 and 146. Here we show that this NES contains several small arginine-rich domains that cooperate to allow efficient interaction with TAP/NXF1. Recruitment of TAP/NXF1 correlates with this NES-mediated efficient nuclear export when it is fused to a heterologous protein. Moreover, the NES can export mRNAs bearing MS2 RNA-binding sites from the nucleus when tethered to the selleck chemicals llc RNA via the MS2 phage coat protein RNA-binding domain.”
“179 cognitively healthy adults enrolled in the Sun Health Brain Donation program between 7/91 and 12/07 were at least 60 years old and nondemented at the time of death (21 had developed mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Amyloid plaque density, congophilic amyloid angiopathy

(CAA), and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) density scores were based on CERAD criteria and compared in apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 carriers (n = 42) and noncarriers (NC) (n = 137). Mean age (83.4 +/-.6), gender (45% women), interval between death and brain harvest (3.1 +/- 2.4 h), and brain weight (1200 +/- 119 g) did not differ between e4 carriers (n = 42) and NC. Total plaque density was higher in e4 carriers than NC (6.8 +/- 4.9 vs. 4.3 +/- 4.4, p = .002), and this was true in each of 5 subregions examined. Total CAA (p = .002) and all subregion CAA burden was also higher

in e4 carriers. Total neuritic plaque density (1.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.0 +/- 1.0, p = .18) and total NET density (3.9 +/- 2.4 vs. 3.6 +/- 2.3, p = .50) did not differ between e4 carriers and NC, nor in any subregion. Eliminating the 21 with MCI did not alter these results. Nondemented APOE e4 carriers over age 60 ISRIB price have a higher burden of total parenchymal and vascular amyloid neuropathology than NC, but no difference in neuritic plaque and NET pathology. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We demonstrate the presence of a functional internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′ leader (designated 5L) from a variant of bicistronic mRNAs that encode the pp14 and RLORF9 proteins from Marek’s disease virus (MDV) serotype 1. Transcribed as a 1.8-kb family of immediate-early genes, the mature bicistronic mRNAs have variable 5′ leader sequences due to alternative splicing or promoter usage.

Modelling with an Ex-Gaussian distribution revealed that patients

Modelling with an Ex-Gaussian distribution revealed that patients have a higher proportion of slow responses reflected by an increased tau parameter. The tau parameter was correlated with work capability in the sample with schizophrenia. In conclusion, IIV is an easily obtained measure, which is highly sensitive to fundamental cognitive deficits not directly visible in a high-functioning patient group. The response pattern with more exceedingly slow reactions could reflect a core deficit in the stability of information processing. The relationship with work capability suggests investigation of IIV as a clinical measure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“Many studies have shown that minocycline, an antibacterial

PI3K inhibitor tetracycline, suppresses experimental pain. While minocycline’s positive effects on pain resolution suggest that clinical use of such drugs may prove beneficial, minocycline’s antibiotic actions and divalent cation (Ca2+; Mg2+) chelating effects detract from its potential utility. Thus, we tested the antiallodynic effect induced by a non-antibacterial, non-chelating minocycline derivative in a model of neuropathic pain and performed an initial investigation of its anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Intraperitoneal EPZ5676 concentration minocycline (100 mg/kg) and 12S-hydroxy1,12-pyrazolinominocycline (PMIN; 23.75 mg/kg, 47.50 mg/kg or 95.00 mg/kg) reduce the mechanical allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury of mouse sciatic nerve. PMIN reduces the LPS-induced production of PGE(2) by primary microglial cell cultures. GW4869 concentration Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected to express human toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and the signaling via both receptors stimulated

with PAM3CSK4 or LPS (respectively) was affected either by minocycline or PMIN. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the cell viability, as assessed by MTT test. Altogether, these results reinforce the evidence that the anti-inflammatory and experimental pain suppressive effects induced by tetracyclines are neither necessarily linked to antibacterial nor to Ca2+ chelating activities. This study supports the evaluation of the potential usefulness of PMIN in the management of neuropathic pain, as its lack of antibacterial and Ca2+ chelating activities might confer greater safety over conventional tetracyclines. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: To investigate the drug to drug interaction of N-methylisatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone (MIBT) derivative (SCH16) with ribavirin, mycophenolic acid and pentoxifylline against Japanese encephalitis virus in vitro. Our earlier studies have reported significant antiviral activity of these compounds against Japanese encephalitis virus in vitro and in vivo.

Dichotic listening tasks present multistable stimuli consisting o

Dichotic listening tasks present multistable stimuli consisting of two different consonant-vowels (CVs, one/ear). For each trial one ear usually conveys the dominant percept. We used EEG to measure neural activity before and after dichotic stimulus presentation to compare activity among left vs. right ear percepts and

a control task. Consonant-vowels were perceived more often to the right vs. left ear. Pre-stimulus EEG power in the beta band (16-20 Hz) increased for left compared to right ear percepts and control trials. Event-related potentials after stimulus onset showed smaller P50 amplitudes (similar to 50 ms latency) for left ear compared to right ear and control trials. Results indicate that neural activity for right DNA Damage inhibitor ear percepts is comparable to control conditions, while activity for the atypical left ear percept differs before and after stimulus onset. H 89 Pre-stimulus EEG changes for left ear percepts may indicate a mechanism of spontaneous fluctuations in cortical networks that bias attentional competition during subsequent sensory processing. The P50 amplitude differences among perceived ears suggests that rapid sensory and/or arousal-related activities contribute

to the content of conscious perception, possibly by biasing attentional competition away from the dominant right ear channel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypic mixture present in infected plants. CTV isolate

FS627, a complex Florida isolate containing T36, T30 and VT genotypes and its aphid transmitted subisolates was used. The relative quantitative assay was carried out using specific primers and probes developed from the genotypes of three CTV virus isolates Angiogenesis inhibitor and included the coat protein region of isolate T36 and the 5′ end, ORF la and ORF 2 region of isolates T36, T30 and VT. Among the three genotypes present in the aphid transmitted subisolates, the T30 genotype showed higher overall relative quantitation in all specific regions compared to other isolates. The profiles of the some aphid transmitted subisolates were different from the parent source from which they transmitted. The 2(-Delta Delta Ct) method (the amount of target, normalized to an endogenous control and relative to a calibrator) was used to analyze the relative titers of the three reference genotypes in the aphid transmitted plants infected with FS627. This protocol enabled assessments of CTV genetic diversity in the aphid transmitted subisolates. This simple quantitative assay was sensitive, efficient, and took less time than other existing methods. This relative quantitative assay will be a reliable tool for diagnosis, detection and genetic diversity studies on CTV. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Finally, in light of the research reviewed here, it is apparent t

Finally, in light of the research reviewed here, it is apparent that the 3-Methyladenine ic50 specific nature of amnesia observed in an individual with medial temporal lobe damage will depend on the particular medial temporal lobe regions affected and their specific representational capacities. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

of recognition memory is a prominent feature of the human classical amnesic syndrome. Recognition memory requires judgments concerning prior occurrence. Such judgments can be made in a variety of ways using different types of information such as the relative familiarity of individual objects or locations, or the location of a previously encountered object, or when an object was previously encountered.

We review findings of selective ablation studies which demonstrate that the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex are differently involved in recognition memory processes involving these different types of information. This review also presents data from a series of disconnection analyses, which test whether the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex form components of an integrated system for these recognition memory processes. These analyses reveal that it is necessary for the perirhinal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus to interact, forming an integrated VE822 network, in recognition memory involving judgment of whether an object has been previously encountered in a particular place (object-in-place recognition memory) and in judging which of two objects was encountered longer ago (temporal order memory). In contrast, such interactions are not necessary when judgments are made concerning the prior occurrence of an individual item without positional information being necessary for the judgment (object memory) or concerning the prior occurrence of some

item at a particular location without object information being necessary for the judgment (location memory). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We Blasticidin S derive a new continuous free energy formula for protein folding. We obtain the formula first by adding hydrophobic effect to a classical free energy formula for cavities in water. We then obtain the same formula by geometrically pursuing the structure that fits best the well-known global geometric features of native structures of globular proteins: 1. high density; 2. small surface area; 3. hydrophobic core; 4. forming domains for long polypeptide chains. Conformations of a protein are presented as an all atom CPK model P = boolean OR(N)(i=1) B(x(i), r(i)) where each atom is a ball B(x(i), r(i)). All conformations satisfy generally defined steric conditions. For each conformation P of a globular protein, there is a closed thermodynamic system Omega(P) superset of P bounded by the molecular surface M(P).

Among them, 44 patients underwent nonretransplant cardiac surgery

Among them, 44 patients underwent nonretransplant cardiac surgery, 4 of them repeatedly. The procedures included 19 coronary artery revascularizations, 20 tricuspid valve procedures, 4 other valvular procedures, 4 aortic operations, and 1 right atrial thrombectomy. Long-term results of these patients were compared with those of 20 patients after late cardiac retransplantation.

Results: Indications for nonretransplant surgery included cardiac allograft vasculopathy, tricuspid regurgitation, aortic and mitral valve insufficiency, as well as acute aortic dissection type A. Mean interval between heart transplantation and reoperation was 8.4 years. Mean follow-up was 5.8 years. Early

mortality was 4.5% (2/44). The early deaths were caused by intracerebral bleeding and acute LCL161 price rejection. Actuarial survivals at 1, 5, and 7 years were 84%, 64%, and 58%, respectively. In BI-D1870 in vivo comparison, early mortality in the retransplant group was 20% (4/20) and survivals at the same time points were 70%, 70%, and 47%,


Conclusions: According to these results, we consider nonretransplant surgical options for cardiac allograft vasculopathy and valvular disease a safe and effective therapeutic approach with low early mortality and acceptable long-term results. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 433-9)”
“Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms

in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction found and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Adenosine and the activation of specific adenosine receptors are implicated in the attenuation of inflammation and organ ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that activation of A(1), A(2A), or A(3) adenosine receptors would provide protection against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

The same participants then completed

two non-imitative ve

The same participants then completed

two non-imitative versions of the task in Experiment 2. The ‘geometric’ version of the task required participants to perform actions specified by the movement of abstract geometric shapes. The ‘verbal’ version of the task required participants to describe the observed actions. Adults with ASD were as impaired on each non-imitative version of the task as they were on the imitative version, suggesting that the impaired BI-D1870 clinical trial performance on the imitation task was not due to a functional mirroring deficit. Instead, more general factors contributed to the poor performance on this task. These findings add to the weight of evidence suggesting that impairments in imitation skills should not be cited as evidence consistent with a ‘mirror system deficit theory’ of ASD. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. This investigation aims to determine the 12-month drinking trajectory of older at-risk drinkers in treatment. Furthermore, the drinking trajectory between at-risk drinkers who had met the threshold suggestive of alcohol dependence (problem at-risk drinkers) and those who did not meet this threshold (nonproblematic at-risk drinkers) were compared.

Methods. This investigation is a component of the PRISM-E (Primary Care selleck inhibitor Research

in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) Study, a multisite randomized trial comparing service use, outcomes, and cost between Integrated (IC) versus Enhanced Specialty Referral (ESR) care models for older (65-1 years) adults with depression, anxiety, and/or at-risk alcohol consumption. This investigation focuses only on at-risk drinkers, generally defined as exceeding recommended drinking limits, which in the case of older adults has been classified as consuming more than one drink per day. Two hundred fifty-eight randomized older at-risk drinkers 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl were examined,

of whom 56% were problem drinkers identified through the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric version.

Results. Over time, all at-risk drinkers showed a significant reduction in drinking. Problem drinkers showed reductions in average weekly consumption and number of occurrences of binge drinking at 3, 6, and 12 months, whereas nonproblematic drinkers showed significant reductions in average weekly consumption at 3, 6, and 12 months and number of occurrences of binge drinking at only 6 months. IC treatment assignment led to higher engagement in treatment, which led to better binge drinking outcomes for problem drinkers. Despite significant reductions in drinking, approximately 29% of participants displayed at-risk drinking at the end of the study.

Conclusions. Results suggest that older at-risk drinkers, both problem and nonproblematic, show a considerable decrease in drinking, with slightly greater improvement evidenced in problem drinkers and higher engagement in treatment seen in those assigned to IC.

The NPC is a 125-MDa complex composed of multiple copies of 30

The NPC is a 125-MDa complex composed of multiple copies of 30

different proteins. Here we have extended the analysis of the NPC in infected cells by examining the status of Nup98, an interferon-induced NPC protein with a major role in mRNA export. Our results indicate that Nup98 is targeted for cleavage after infection but that this occurs much more rapidly than it does for Nup153 and Nup62. In addition, we find that cleavage of these NPC proteins displays differential sensitivity to the viral RNA synthesis inhibitor guanidine hydrochloride. Inhibition of www.selleckchem.com/products/Neratinib(HKI-272).html nuclear import and relocalization of host nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm were only apparent at later times after Avapritinib infection when all three nucleoporins (Nups) were cleaved. Surprisingly, analysis of the distribution of mRNA in infected cells revealed that proteolysis of Nup98 did not result in an inhibition of mRNA export. Cleavage of Nup98 could be reconstituted by the addition of purified rhinovirus type 2 2A(pro) to whole-cell lysates prepared from uninfected cells, suggesting that the 2A protease has a role in

this process in vivo. These results indicate that poliovirus differentially targets subsets of NPC proteins at early and late times postinfection. In addition, targeting of interferon-inducible NPC proteins, such as Nup98, may be an additional weapon in the arsenal of poliovirus and perhaps other picornaviruses MK-1775 order to overcome host defense mechanisms.”
“Cannabinoids have long been associated with mnemonic deficits. However, existing evidence has generally focused on the effect of cannabinoids when they are delivered prior to task-training, and such findings are confounded by possible drug effects on sensory, motor, and/or motivational systems that support the acquisition and the expression of

learning. The present study investigated the effects of the CB1-receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on memory consolidation in the Morris water maze. In experiment 1, systemic injections of either WIN or DMSO vehicle were given daily following each training day (post-training), and rats were probe-tested 1 week or 4 weeks later. Rats injected with 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg of WIN spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared with controls 4 weeks later, while no difference was observed at 1-week retention. In experiment 2, intrahippocampal injections of WIN were administered to the dorsal hippocampus following each training day and rats were again probe-tested 1 week or 4 weeks later. Rats bilaterally infused with WIN at 2.5 mu g and 5 mu g (per side) during training spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than vehicle controls on probe trial 4 weeks later, while no difference was seen at 1-week retention.


such as disability discrimination laws might,


such as disability discrimination laws might, Z-IETD-FMK supplier therefore, not be effective without interventions to improve self-esteem of people with mental illness.

Funding South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trustees, UK Department of Health SHiFT programme, German Ministry of Education and Research.”
“Repetitive stimulation of dopamine receptors located in the basal ganglia may lead to the manifestation of sensitized, abnormal, motor responses In dopamine-denervated rats. In order to study the role of motor behavior execution on the expression of these altered motor responses, we evaluated how “”priming”", a phenomenon displaying neurochemical and behavioral features peculiar to a sensitized abnormal motor response

in dopamine-denervated rats, depends on actual movement performance. To this end, unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats received apomorphine (0.2 mg/kg s.c.), being either allowed to move or immobilized Torin 1 mw (I h) before, concomitantly to, or after its administration, respectively. Three days after apomorphine, the dopamine D, receptor agonist 1-Phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzaz-epine-7,8-diol (SKF 38393, 3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to all animals. Rats that had performed rotational behavior following apomorphine administration displayed robust contraversive rotational behavior in response to SKF 38393, whereas rats that had been immobilized concomitantly to, but neither before nor after apomorphine, did not. To clarity whether stress, which may be increased by immobilization, mediated the results observed, additional rats received apomorphine paired with immobilization plus the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (100 mg/kg i.p.), or apomorphine paired with a tail stressor, being not immobilized. Metyrapone did not affect the capacity of immobilization to prevent priming and tail stressor imposition did not

affect priming magnitude, suggesting that stress ALOX15 has minimal or no effect on the results observed. This study demonstrates how movement performance following initial dopaminergic stimulation governs the occurrence of a sensitized, abnormal, motor response to a subsequent dopaminergic challenge in dopamine-denervated rats. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The main institutions responsible for governing international trade and health-the World Trade Organization (WTO), which replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1995, and WHO-were established after World War 2. For many decades the two institutions operated in isolation, with little cooperation between them. The growth and expansion of world trade over the past half century amid economic globalisation, and the increased importance of health issues to the functioning of a more interconnected world, brings the two domains closer together on a broad range of issues.

This review integrates

This review integrates PF-562271 cost current concepts on the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptor (AR) regulate energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. In females, estrogen maintains energy homeostasis via ER alpha and ER beta, by suppressing energy intake and lipogenesis, enhancing energy expenditure, and ameliorating insulin secretion and sensitivity. In males, testosterone is converted to estrogen and maintains fuel homeostasis via ERs and AR, which share related functions to suppress adipose tissue accumulation and improve insulin sensitivity. We suggest that ERs and AR could be potential targets

in the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.”
“Objective: To test the hypothesis that Type-D personality is associated with elevated cortisol levels in patients 4 months after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Salivary cortisol profiles were measured at home in 70 coronary heart disease patients (Mean age = 60.90 years, SID = 10.7, 17% female) 4 months after hospitalization for ACS. Eight saliva samples were taken over the course of I day. Results: Thirty eight percent of the ACS patients were defined as Type-D. Cortisol profiles showed a typical diurnal pattern, Selisistat with low levels in the evening, high levels early in the day. Type-D was not

related to the cortisol awakening response, but cortisol output the day was higher in Type-D (mean = 4443.3, SD = 2334.1 nmol/1) than non Type-D patients (mean = 3252.0, SD = 1810.2 nmot/1) after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, recurrence of cardiac symptoms, previous myocardial infarction, body mass index and concurrent depressed mood) =.044). Type-D personality accounted for 6% over the variance in cortisol Output over the day, after covariates had been taken into account. Conclusion: Type-D personality may be associated with prolonged disruption of the liypothalainic-pituitary-adrenal

axis function in survivors of acute cardiac events and may contribute to biological responses influencing AZD5582 in vitro future cardiac morbidity.”
“Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that enters cells by the receptor-mediated fusion of the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. The envelope glycoprotein gD of HSV must bind to one of its receptors for entry to take place. Recent studies using knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that the gD receptors herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1 are the primary entry receptors for HSV-2 in the mouse vagina and brain. Nectin-1 was most crucial for the neuronal spread of HSV-2, particularly in the brain. HVEM was dispensable for infection in these models, but when both HVEM and nectin-1 were absent, infection was completely prevented. We sought to determine the receptor requirements of HSV-1 in an ocular model of infection using knockout mice.

Results: A total of 100 patients (55 men and 45 women, mean age 6

Results: A total of 100 patients (55 men and 45 women, mean age 61.8

+/- 9.16 years) were included in the study. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.6 +/- 14.1 months. Baseline demographics, biochemical analyses and blood pressures were similar. Renal functions and proteinuria of both groups did not show any significant changes during follow-up. Blood pressure courses were also similar. Although the mean doubling time of creatinine in the ARB group was shorter than the ACEI group, it was not statistically significant. During the follow-up period, 4 patients died (2 in the ACEI group, 2 in the ARB group) and 10 patients were started on dialysis (7 in the ACEI group, 3 in the ARB group). Serum creatinine and the amount of proteinuria were the baseline parameters which were related to the initiation AZD3965 of dialysis. Conclusion: ACEIs and ARBs have similar outcomes in Trichostatin A in vivo overt DNP. Their renoprotective effects can be observed in spite of uncontrolled hypertension. Copyright (c) 2009 S.

Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: High cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be related to mineral disorder and microinflammation. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphatonin and inhibitor of calcitriol synthesis, which is associated with poor prognosis in CKD patients starting dialysis. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) con tribute to myocardial remodeling and arterial calcification. FGF-23 and MMPs levels are altered in CKD, however, little is known about their association and relation to cardiovascular (CV) disease. Methods: Standard laboratory parameters, plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, FGF-23, PAPP-A and CV disease history were assessed in 80 patients with CKD 1-5 and 44 healthy control subjects. Results: FGF-23 and MMP-2 (assessed by ELISA) were higher in CKD patients compared to controls. FGF-23 increased from CKD 3, whereas MMP-2 increased only in CKD 5. FGF-23 was positively associated with MMP-2, adjusted to age, eGFR, phosphatemia, calcitriol and parathormone. FGF-23 independently correlated with parathormone

and inversely with calcitriol, whereas MMP-2 was related to phosphatemia. FGF-23 was higher in subjects with a history of CV disease compared to those free MK-2206 in vitro of such history (559.0 vs. 184.0 RU/ml), adjusted to age and eGFR. Conclusion: Our data suggest a possible relationship between FGF-23, MMP-2 and CV disease in CKD. Potential causality of this association remains to be elucidated. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background/Aims: To evaluate the effects of neonatal handling on hydroelectrolytic balance in adult rats. Methods: The litters were divided into two groups: nonhandled and handled. The procedure consisted of handling the pups for 1 min/day in the first 10 days postnatally. When adults, animals had their body weight verified and were housed in individual metabolic cages.