Figure 5 Magnetic resonance image with eight regions of interest

Figure 5. Magnetic resonance image with eight regions of interest (ROIs) marked with different colors. ps1, ps2, ps3, foam 1, foam 2, and foam 3 are test objects. The experiment was performed in

three parts. First, higherorder features were considered only. Those were co-occurrence matrix, run-length matrix, gradient, and autoregressive model-derived parameters. The best of these were automatically selected by MaZda. Using the Bll program, the two sets of best, features were Olaparib IC50 transformed (PCA and LDA) and the transform #selleck chemical Sorafenib keyword# data were used as new features for classification (by means of a 1-NN classifier tested using the “leave-one-out” technique). The results are shown in Table I, which indicates, that lowest error figure (3/56) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was obtained for the LDA data, with no possibility of perfect classification. In the second part of the experiment, histogram-based features were added to the higher-order ones used in the first part. Table I shows significance of these parameters

in region discrimination. Perfect classification was achieved for LDA- transformed data. One can notice that even if histogram data do not represent texture, they are significant to ROI classification. In the third part, wavelet-based features only were used. Table I shows that perfect ROI discrimination is possible even in the raw data space. This family of features seems to describe texture for classification purposes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical extremely well. The results collected (Table I) indicate that one cannot specify in advance which

particular texture features Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical will be useful for discrimination of texture classes, and that raw-data texture features usually do not allow perfect discrimination – some pre-processing is necessary, eg, by means of linear or nonlinear discriminant transforms. Table I Number of classification errors (out of 56 samples) for higher-order features (histogram and wavelet-based features excluded; wavelet-based features excludes; and wavelet-based features only). POE, probability of classification Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical error; AC, average correlation … Summary Texture analysis applied to MRI (and other modalities) is one of the methods that provide quantitative information about internal structure of physical objects (eg, human body tissue) visualized in images. TTiis information can be used to enhance medical diagnosis by making it more accurate and objective. Within the framework of a European COST B11 Cilengitide action, a unique package of computer programs has been developed for texture quantitative analysis in digital images. The package consists of two modules: MaZda.exe and B11.exe.The modules are seamlessly integrated, and each of the modules can be run as a separate application. Using the package, one can compute a large variety of different texture features and use them for classification of regions in the image. Moreover, MaZda allows generation of feature map images that can be used for visual analysis of image content in a new feature space, highlighting some image properties.

They also reflect different, stages of approximation to completen

They also reflect different, stages of approximation to completeness at an early stage. Sequencing at this stage is still too laborand cost-intensive. It is generally

not especially feasible to sequence all functionally relevant regions of the entire gene (even if they were all known) in every member of a defined population in order to identify all given variants and their frequencies. Just to give some impression of the scale of the undertaking: in order to systematically analyze genetic variation in a typical G protein-coupled receptor gene including regulatory, exonic and intronic sequences (exon-intron boundaries) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in 250 cases and controls, about 1.7 finished megabases (ie, about, twice the amount of raw sequence data to obtain maximum accuracy) need to be generated,29 comparable to the

size of a bacterial genome. For completeness of genomic organization, we should refer to examples that have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical demonstrated, for instance, a disease-related regulatory variant, about 14 kb 5_ upstream of the translation initiation codon or regulatory elements in intronic sequences of extensive lengths.39 Thus, functionally important regions of the gene can at this stage be included in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as representative a way as possible. Present approaches may still miss what we term the causative variant(s). Thus, in practice, we are still dealing (at a comparatively advanced level) with marker or subset Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approaches, where identified variants represent, only a selection of all naturally existing variants. Against, this background, the genebased haplotypes will be categorized as complex genetic markers.39 A critical question is

then whether the subsets of variation extracted do in fact validly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical represent, given LD and haplotype structures of a gene. In this case, the resulting gene-based haplotypes have been shown to be superior as markers in comparison to any single SNP, because they contain more information (heterozygosity) than any of the individual markers, or SNPs that comprise them.33,48 Multiple correlations with neighboring, Cilengitide or embedded, unobserved variants may be possible. Thus, a neither multisite gene-based haplotype (higher-order marker) will have greater power than any individual SNP to detect, an unobserved – but evolutionarily linked – variable causative site.48 Such haplotype signatures may, moreover, have significantly greater power to predict disease risk and drug response than any individual SNP within a gene.24,29,48,51,62 In the overall process of disease gene identification, it merits serious consideration to restrict, investigations in the first, pass to haplotype marker screening, the apparently less investment-intensive marker approach. It should nevertheless be emphasized that if an association is found, the ultimate challenge to generate complete sequence information will remain.

5),99) Repeated imaging can avoid inappropriate use of aggressive

5),99) Repeated imaging can avoid inappropriate use of aggressive medications or implantable devices. CMR is a good noninvasive modality that can give information about LV systolic function, valvular and pericardial pathologies and tissue characterizations. CMR can give important clues to identify the presence of reversible cardiomyopathy. Additional evidence is needed to understand how the detection of improvement at repeat imaging should be used to monitor the responsiveness to therapy and the implications this has for the duration of therapy. Acknowledgements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Special thanks to inhibitor Crenolanib Cathryn Brock for her assistance in writing the table 1 manuscript.
A 52-year-old man with sudden onset of dyspnea was transferred to

our hospital. Transthoracic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical echocardiography showed an intimal flap ranged from sinus of Valsalva to sinotubular junction, with heterogenous hypoechoic materials within the flap (Fig. 1), and it caused

severe aortic regurgitation. Computed tomography scan showed linear dissection flap and aneurysmal dilatation in the sinus of Valsalva. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated a suspicious dissection flap in the left coronary cusp with destroyed aortic valve (Fig. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2), with no color Doppler signal within this flap (Fig. 3). We estimated the diagnosis as Type A aortic dissection requiring emergency operation. From the operative findings, however, the patient was diagnosed to have infective endocarditis involved the left coronary cusp of aortic valve and sinus of Valsalva which caused dissection. Therefore, we performed aortic valve replacement and sinus of Valsalva repair. The operation finished successfully. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The pathologic findings of hypoechoic materials within the flap showed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chronic inflammation with neutrophil infiltration. Even though the pathogen was not proved in the several times of blood culture, we treated the patient with 6 weeks of antibiotics and

anticoagulation therapy. Fig. 1 Transthoracic echocardiography. The parasternal long axis view demonstrates an intimal flap (arrow) ranged from sinus of Valsalva to sinotubular junction, with heterogenous hypoechoic material within the flap (between arrowheads). Fig. 2 Transesophageal echocardiography. Mid esophageal aortic valve short axis view demonstrates a dissection flap (arrow) with destroyed left coronary cusp of aortic valve (arrowheads). Fig. 3 Transesophageal echocardiography. Mid esophageal aortic valve short axis view Anacetrapib demonstrates no color Doppler signal within the flap (arrows). A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare disorder. Although usually congenital, it may be associated with endocarditis, trauma, or aortic dissection.1),2) Once ruptured, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm may produce serious hemodynamic instability, such as acute heart failure or sudden death.3) When a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is suspected, immediate diagnosis should be pursued with TEE.

The mean duration of ED visits was also higher in Level 1 trauma

The mean duration of ED visits was also higher in Level 1 trauma centers when compared to non-trauma, Level 2, and Level 3 trauma centers across patients’ discharge status, except when the patient died in the hospital. Patients visiting EDs of hospitals with large bed size experienced longer duration regardless of their discharge status when compared to hospitals with small or medium bed sizes. Finally, the mean duration of ED visits at hospitals that were members of a hospital system was slightly higher when compared to hospitals that were not members of hospital systems. Table 3 Mean and median duration of treat-and-release visits at EDs by disposition of the patient at discharge across hospital

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and area characteristics Regression results Table ​Table44 presents regression results that convey the impact of admission Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical day of the week, patient demographics, and hospital characteristics on duration of patients’ visits to EDs. All results are highly statistically significant for all variables across all models except hospital characteristics estimated under the Bioactive compound multilevel model. Average duration of visits on Mondays is at least 4 percent and 9 percent more than the average duration of visits on non-Monday workdays and on Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical weekends, respectively.

The results also show that average duration of ED visits for older patients or female patients is generally longer when compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to younger patients or male patients. Non-white patients generally experience longer duration of ED visits when compared to white patients. When compared to patients with other primary payers, Medicare patients are generally associated with longer duration of ED visits, and uninsured patients or patients who pay out-of-pocket are generally associated with shorter duration of ED visits. Table 4 Estimated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Effects of Admission Time, Patient and Hospital Characteristics on Log Duration of Emergency Department Visits

The regression results presented in Table ​Table44 show that patients visiting teaching hospitals and Level 1 trauma centers generally experience longer duration of ED visits. Average duration of patient’s visits to Level 2 and Level 3 trauma centers are generally shorter when compared to the duration of ED visits GSK-3 at non-trauma hospital centers. Patients visiting urban hospitals experience longer duration of ED visits when compared to patients visiting rural hospitals. Similarly, the average duration of ED visits to hospitals with large or medium bed size is shorter than the average duration of ED visits to hospitals with small bed size. Table ​Table44 also provides crucial information about the source of variation in duration of ED visits. The intra-class correlation coefficient obtained through multilevel regression analysis indicates that about 56 percent of variations in duration of patients’ visits to EDs are due to variation within patients clustered by hospitals.

Especially in adolescence, persistent

loss of sleep can h

Especially in adolescence, persistent

loss of sleep can have a depressing effect and lead to the problems at home and at school to which reference has also been made. Disturbed sleep can affect a child’s emotional state and behavior in various other ways. Bedtime can become a source of distress if associated with frightening thoughts or experiences that are associated with various sleep disorders, including night-time fears. Intellectual function and education There is convincing evidence that insufficient sleep can cause impaired concentration, memory, decision-making, and general ability to learn. selleck chemicals Performance on tasks calling for sustained attention is particularly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical affected, and also those requiring abstract thinking or creativity. Similarly, motor skills and reaction time can be impaired. Studies in the USA have suggested Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that 80% of adolescents obtain less than adequate sleep (ie, 9 hours), 25% less than 6 hours, and over 25% fall asleep in class. Students with insufficient sleep generally achieve lower school grades.17 Findings in other countries

might well be similar. EPZ-5676 leukemia physical effects As the production of growth hormone is closely linked to deep NREM sleep, if sleep is seriously disrupted from an early age, physical growth may be affected. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical As mentioned earlier, OSA can disrupt sleep from about the age of 2, causing the child to “fail to thrive” and be smaller for his or her age than ideal. In addition to this effect of

OSA on growth, persistent sleep loss in particular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is being increasingly associated in adults with physical ill-health such as impaired immunity, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.18 There is no particular reason to expect that children are free of at least some of these Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risks. Family and other social effects There have been reports that relationships between parent and a child with a serious and persistent sleep problem can be severely tested to the point of increased use of physical punishment in extreme cases.19 Parents may disagree with each other about ways of dealing with the child’s refusal to go to sleep at the required time, or his or her insistence GSK-3 on joining them in their own bed after waking during the night. In these circumstances, marital relationships may become seriously strained. Because of the changes of behavior that can result from sleep disturbance, the affected child’s interpersonal problems may extend beyond his family. Irritable, difficult, or otherwise disturbed behavior is likely to affect friendships. Relationships with teachers can also easily suffer, especially if they are unaware that behavioral problems can be the result of inadequate or otherwise disturbed sleep. In view of these various potential complications to the child’s life, it is essential that ail concerned realize they can be at least partly the result of sleep disturbance for which effective treatment can be provided in most instances.


Mutations in this gene can lead to different diseases including CRC. Factors involving in B-RAF mutations and impared signaling The activation of BRAF oncogene, inactivation

of mismatch repair genes by methylation of CpG islands, and microsatellite instability (MSI) have been reported to be involved in CRC development (7). B-RAF does not require additional negative charge during activation by additional enzyme modification, since its N-region contains an activating serine site and the basal activity of BRAF is higher than its other RAF family members (8), that is why BRAF Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is more prone to mutations than CRAF and ARAF (9). Single amino acid substitutions can cause the activation of BRAF, but CRAF and ARAF require two mutations for their oncogenic activation, which

is a very rare event to be seen (8). The most common BRAF mutation, which selleck chemicals Ruxolitinib accounts for more than 90% of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cases of cancer involving this gene, is a glutamic acid for valine substitution at position 600 (V600E) (9). Continued expression of BRAF V600E is required for tumor growth and progression (10). BRAF is a major contributor to many cancers. Somatic mutations in the BRAF gene have been detected in almost 50% malignant melanomas and many other cancers including CRC, ovarian and JQ1 papillary thyroid carcinomas (11). Of the oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene, most are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clustered in two regions of the kinase domain, which is responsible for maintaining the inactive catalytic conformation, the glycine rich loop and the activation segment. The proteins of BRAF oncogene with impaired kinase activity and the binding and activation of CRAF are required Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for ERK activation in vivo. The oncogenic BRAF proteins have been divided into three groups based on their enzymatic activity: (I) those with high enzymatic activity, they are 130-700 folds more active than the wild-type (WT) BRAF;

(II) those with intermediate activity, which are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 60 to 1.3 folds more active than WT BRAF; (III) those with impaired catalytic activity are 0.8 to 0.3 folds active as compared to WT BRAF (12). Activating mutations in BRAF oncogene have been reported in 10-15% CRC with the vast majority being a V600E hotspot mutation (13). V600E substitution is strongly associated with microsatellite Dacomitinib instability (MSI+) phenotype, but is mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations (14). CIMP provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular mechanism that leads to epigenetic changes in CRC and how these changes can cause this disease (15). A strong association between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and the presence of an activated form of BRAF mutation (BRAFV600E) has been founded (16). It has also been demonstrated that sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs as a consequence of CIMP-associated MLH1 DNA hypermethylation (16,17).

GABAb receptors are coupled to calcium channels A role for GABA

GABAb receptors are coupled to calcium channels. A role for GABA in the pathophysiology of selleck chemicals llc depression has long been postulated, and several recent studies support this hypothesis.111,112 Preclinical studies have demonstrated decreased CNS GABA concentrations in animal models of depression.111 CSF and plasma GABA concentrations have been reported to be decreased in depressed patients.111 Postmortem investigation of the hippocampus

in depressed patients JQ1 structure suggested possible GABAergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dysfunction.113 GABAb receptors are found on most 5-HT-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe, and GABA release into the dorsal raphe decreases firing of 5-HT neurons.114 Modulating GABAb function has been shown to have important behavioral effects in animal models, with GABAb antagonists demonstrating certain antidepressantlike properties.112,114 Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Sanacora et al demonstrated decreased GABA concentrations in the

occipital cortex of depressed patients.100,115 Moreover, this group showed GABA concentrations increase in the occipital cortex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after SSRI treatment and ECT,116,117 but not after Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CBT118 CNS GABA concentrations have also been shown to be normal in remitted depressed patients compared with controls.119 Neurokinins Neurokinins are neuropeptides widely distributed in the CNS and peripheral nervous system, and are believed to play a role in nociception. Substance P is the most abundant neurokinin in humans and is found in neurons in several brain regions implicated in the neurobiology of depression.120 Substance P is also colocalized in cells containing 5-HT and NE.121-124 Substance P binds to several receptor subtypes (NK-1, NK-2, NK-3, NKA, NKB), and appears to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have an important role in modulating the mammalian stress response. In animal models, substance P results in behavioral and physiologic changes characteristics of a stress response.125,126 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These changes can be attenuated by substance P antagonists.127,128 Supporting its role in depression, CSF substance P concentrations were reported to be elevated in depressed patients

compared with controls,129-131 and lower serum concentrations of substance P have been correlated with better antidepressant treatment response.130 Our group has reported elevations in CSF substance P concentrations in drug-free patients with major depression and PTSD.132 One placebo-controlled study using a neurokinin receptor (NK-1) antagonist (MK-869) suggested efficacy in treating depression,127 Dacomitinib but several follow-up studies found no significant antidepressant effects for this agent.133 Two other selective NK-1 receptor antagonists (L-759274 and CP-122721) have shown potential efficacy in treating depression,134,135 although data are relatively limited. In general, these drugs appear to be well-tolerated. Neuroanatomical models Several lines of evidence support a neuroanatomical basis for depression.

36% of patients in the pharmacoinvasive group required “rescue” P

36% of patients in the pharmacoinvasive group required “rescue” PCI. Significantly more open vessels were found during coronary

flt angiography (before PCI) in the pharmacoinvasive group compared to the PPCI group (TIMI flow grade 0 in 16% vs. 59.3% respectively, p < 0.001). Overall, 80% of patients in the pharmacoinvasive group and 90% in the PPCI group eventually underwent PCI (p < 0.001). However, significantly more patients in the pharmacoinvasive group underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (4.7% vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.002). 6 An important evaluation of the rates of aborted myocardial infarction (prespecified secondary end-point) was recently published in a separate communication. 8 Aborted myocardial infarction was defined as ST-elevation resolution ≥ 50% (90 minutes post-initiation of tenecteplase in the pharmacoinvasive group or 30 minutes post-PCI in the PPCI group) with

minimal biomarker rise; defined as CK-MB ≤ 2 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or cardiac troponin T/I ≤ 5 times the ULN. Amongst the patients who fulfilled these criteria, those who developed new pathological Q-waves on their discharge ECGs were excluded. Overall, 99 patients (11.1%) in the pharmacoinvasive group had aborted MI compared to 59 patients (6.9%) in the PPCI group (p < 0.01), a finding most likely driven by the significantly shorter time delay from onset of symptoms to start of reperfusion therapy in the formed group (100 minutes vs. 178 minutes for the pharmacoinvasive and PPCI groups respectively, p < 0.001). The difference in aborted MI rates observed between both groups did not however have a significant interaction with the primary composite end-point. Fast-mi Registry The FAST-MI Registry was designed to evaluate the “real world” management of patients with acute MI, and to assess their in-hospital, medium- and long-term outcomes. Patients

were recruited consecutively at the end of 2005 from 223 centers across France over a period of one month. Physicians participating in the study cared for their patients according to their usual practice, completely independent from the study. 9 The investigators recently reported Dacomitinib the 5-year survival rates of patients with STEMI who sought medical attention within 12 hours from the onset of symptoms. 7 Of the 1492 patients whose data was available, 447 (30%) received fibrinolysis (two thirds of whom had pre-hospital fibrinolysis), 583 (39%) were referred for PPCI, and 462 (31%) received no reperfusion therapy. Patients who did not receive reperfusion therapy were older, more likely to have history of cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, as well as an overall higher risk profile.

18,26,27 These effects have been shown recently to drive increase

18,26,27 These effects have been shown recently to drive increased drug self-administration and relapse, presumably through a process of negative reinforcement.28 These now actions of CREB seem to involve both major subtypes of NAc medium spiny neurons, those that express predominantly D1 versus D2 dopamine receptors.24 Interestingly, a large body of literature has shown that CREB, acting in hippocampus and amygdala, is a key molecule in behavioral memory.29-31 This broad role in addiction and behavioral memory likely reflects the fact

that neurons are imbued with a finite number of molecular mechanisms with which to adapt to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a constantly changing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical environment. Target genes for CREB that mediate this behavioral phenotype have been identified through genome-wide assays as well as more selected efforts.10,18,32 One example is the opioid peptide dynorphin: stimulant induction of dynorphin expression in NAc neurons, mediated via CREB, increases dynorphin activation of k opioid receptors on VTA dopamine neurons and thereby suppresses dopaminergic transmission to the NAc and impairs reward.18 Several other CREB targets have been shown to be important for drug-induced synaptic plasticity, as

discussed below. While CREB is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical also Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activated in several other brain thorough regions by stimulants and opiates,23,24 less is known about the behavioral consequences of this effect and the target genes through which they occur. Likewise, less is known about CREB’s role in mediating the actions of other drugs of abuse.19 ΔFosB Acute exposure to virtually any drug of abuse induces all Fos family transcription factors

in NAc and several other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical brain regions. This induction is rapid but also highly transient, with Fos protein levels reverting to normal within 8 to 12 hours. Uniquely among these Fos family proteins is ΔFosB, a truncated product of the FosB gene, which by virtue of its unusual stability, gradually accumulates through a course of repeated drug exposure Cilengitide and becomes the predominant Fos protein expressed under these conditions.22,33 Moreover, because of this stability, levels of ΔFosB persist for weeks after drug withdrawal. Such chronic induction of ΔFosB has been demonstrated for virtually all drugs of abuse34 and, for most drugs, is selective for Dl-type NAc neurons.34,35 It has also been demonstrated in human addicts.35 A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type NAc neurons increases an animal’s sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement (see refs 34 to 38).

Patients (2 subjects) with no clinical evidence for blisters and

Patients (2 subjects) with no clinical evidence for blisters and ICS titres < 1:40 at the end of the therapy were considered as PV in remission (recovered). Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Blood samples were taken by using a butterfly needle and collected into 10 ml blood serum separator tubes under routine conditions. Blood was separated into a lighter phase (serum) and a heavier phase after centrifugation at 1000 �� g for 5 min. Serum was transferred to fresh tubes and samples were then stored at -20��C until use. For Raman examination a drop of serum was placed on a microscope glass and covered by a 170 ��m thick cover glass, Samples were examined using a micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with a confocal microscope (Horiba-Jobin Yvon). A He-Ne laser operating at a light wavelength �� = 632.8 nm with a laser maximum delivery of about 3.5mW at sample level was used as exciting source. The spectrograph included monochromator, a CCD detector with a chip size of 1024��256 equipped with a Peltier cell and with a grating of 1800 grooves/mm. The laser light was focused on the sample surface by means of a 50X long working distance optical objective (Olympus MPLAN 50x/0.75) on an excitation spot size with a diameter of about 50 ��m. A notch filter (Kaiser Optic) was used in the collimated scattered beam to reduce the laser background. This device was directly controlled by the data acquisition software. A color video camera integrate within the microscope enabled the user to visualize the sample in reflection. For each patient two blood samples were prepared and several spectra were acquired for each samples. The ��-RS spectrum was generally evaluated in the wavenumber shift regions of 1000�C1800 cm-1 and 2700-3000 cm-1 where peaks assigned to vibration modes of amide I (near 1650 cm-1), CH2 and CH3 bending modes (near 1445 cm-1, 2850-2930 cm-1) and amide III (1240�C1260 cm-1) are placed [5, 8]. Accumulation times ranging in 60�C300 s were used for the ��-RS acquisitions. It should be noted that we have used visible low power laser, in contrast with other authors who prefer near infrared laser source to further minimize fluorescence effects, although the latter approach needs the use of more powerful lasers as reported in literature [5-7, 10].2.2. Wavelet deconvolutionLight dispersion effects due to the presence of liquid in the samples considered, affected the quality of the ��-RS spectra, which featured typically a large background signal and a relatively high level of noise. An automatic numerical data treatment based on wavelet algorithm was used in order to suppress the non-correlated signal, to subtract the background signal and to increase the quantitative readibility of the Raman signal. As reported by Camerlingo et al.