Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedur

Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P < 0.05) belly firmness measured either lean side down or fat side down from the belly bar firmness test [4.39 cm vs. 7.01 cm (lean down) and 5.75 cm vs. 10.54 cm (fat down)] for 0 and 0.75% dietary CLA, respectively. The compression

test used on bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented FK228 research buy pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P < 0.05) with pigs fed the NC diet as measured by the belly bar test [6.94 cm vs. 9.26 cm (fat down)], respectively. Conjugated linoleic acid did not, however, improve bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P < 0.04) for lipid oxidation, in which the addition of CLA

decreased bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA increased the percentage of SFA in tissues from pigs supplemented with CLA. Dietary inclusion of CLA increased the concentration of all measured Dibutyryl-cAMP isomers of CLA in bacon. Sensory scores of bacon showed no differences for any see more of the sensory attributes measured

between any of the treatments. Our results indicate that inclusion of dietary CLA will improve belly firmness, extend the shelf life stability of bacon, and increase the degree of fat saturation.”
“Symmetric axial extraction of radiation from a relativistic magnetron with diffraction output (MDO) facilitates the use of any eigenmode as the operating one. As a consequence, a relatively small input RF signal can be used for mode switching, unlike the case for asymmetric extraction when only non-degenerate modes (the pi- mode or the 2 pi- mode) can be used as the operating one. Using the MAGIC particle-in-cell code we demonstrate that about 180 MW is required to switch these non-degenerate modes in the well-known 400 kV A6 magnetron with extraction of radiation from one of its cavities when driven by a solid cathode, and about 30 MW is required for the same device when driven by a transparent cathode. For the gigawatt A6 MDO with a transparent cathode, however, only 200-300 kW is sufficient for mode switching and the switched mode continues to be generated after elimination of the input short RF signal when the amplitude of the applied axial magnetic field is near the critical value corresponding to the boundary between synchronous regions for neighboring modes.

MiPred was the most effective for classifying real-/pseudo-pre-mi

MiPred was the most effective for classifying real-/pseudo-pre-miRNA sequences, and miRAbela performed relatively better for mining miRNA precursors from genome or expressed sequence tag sequences. RNA-fold performed better than m-fold for extracting secondary structure features of miRNA precursors.”
“Pancreatic resection can be performed safely in the community-based hospital setting only when appropriate systems are in place for patient selection

and preoperative, operative, and postoperative care. Pancreatic surgery cannot be performed optimally without considerable investment AP26113 chemical structure in, and coordination of, multiple departments. Delivery of high-quality pancreatic cancer care demands a rigorous assessment of the hospital structure and the processes through which this care is delivered; however, when a hospital makes the considerable effort to establish the necessary systems required for delivery of quality pancreatic cancer care, the community and hospital will benefit substantially.”
“Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan are found in a wide variety of organisms. These

versatile biopolymers are associated with a broad range of biological functions. find more This article is the first to report the potential functions of 2 chitin metabolic enzyme genes from Hyriopsis cumingii. A chitinase-3 gene (Chi-3) and a chitin deacetylase gene (Cda) were cloned from H. cumingii and characterized. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription

polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the Cda gene was expressed in blood, mantle, liver, stomach, kidney, intestine, gill, and foot, whereas Chi-3 was also expressed in those tissues but not in blood. The tissue-specific expression of H. cumingii Chi-3 indicated that other Chi genes may be involved in the H. cumingii immune system. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis CX-6258 showed that the expression of Chi-3 was significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated 12 h after shell damage, suggesting that Chi-3 might hydrolyze superfluous chitin after shell recovery and play a role in shell formation. Conversely, Cda expression did not change significantly (P > 0.05) to maintain a certain degree of acetylation in chitin/chitosan. This study enriches the basic research on chitin metabolic genes and lays foundations for further research of shell regeneration in mussels.”
“Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene are more commonly identified as genetic causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease than mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes. More than 100 different mutations in the PSEN1 gene have been detected, and the clinical phenotypes have been described in the literature.

Their structure can evolve rapidly through mutations that elimina

Their structure can evolve rapidly through mutations that eliminate such genes and through horizontal gene transfer that adds new enzyme-coding genes. Using flux balance analysis we study a vast space of metabolic network genotypes and their relationship to metabolic phenotypes, the ability to sustain life in an environment defined by an available spectrum of carbon sources. Two such networks typically differ in most of their reactions and have few essential reactions in common. Our observations suggest

that the robustness of the Escherichia coli metabolic network to mutations is typical of networks with the same phenotype. We also demonstrate that networks with the same phenotype form large sets that can be traversed through single mutations, and that single mutations of different genotypes with the same phenotype can yield very different novel phenotypes. This means that Z-IETD-FMK mw the evolutionary plasticity and see more robustness of metabolic networks facilitates the evolution of new metabolic abilities.

Our approach has broad implications for the evolution of metabolic networks, for our understanding of mutational robustness, for the design of antimetabolic drugs, and for metabolic engineering.”
“Objective: To describe a cheap, minimally painful and widely usable method for retrieving ureteral stents by using an ureteroscope. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with ureteral stents were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized into a cystoscopic (35 patients) and a find more ureteroscopic (32 patients) group. All stents were retrieved by a flexible cystoscope in the first group and by a ureteroscope in the second group under local anesthesia.

Patients in each group were assessed for stented time, stent side, cause of stent placement, operative time, peroperative pain, postoperative pain, irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria. Also costs of instruments were calculated. Results: Stents were successfully retrieved in 67 patients. There were no statistical differences in the two groups regarding patient gender and age or stent side, operative time, stented time, mean operative pain score, irritative voiding symptom scores and hematuria. Total selling price was USD 20.399 for flexible instruments and USD 10.516 for rigid ones. Total maintenance price was higher in flexible instruments than in the rigid ones (USD 197.8 and 51.7 per use, respectively). Conclusion: Ureteroscopic stent retrieval is a minimally painful, safe and highly tolerable method under local anesthesia as well as flexible cystoscopic retrieval. Also, it is a cheap and widely usable method. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Heat generation in silicide stripes is studied using scanning thermal expansion microscopy. Local hot spots in the lithographically patterned silicide stripes can be imaged with high spatial resolution (around 20 nm).

In this review,

In this review, click here we describe several aspects of RSV infection and analyze recent advances in the assessment of cost-effective palivizumab prophylaxis.”
“Adenocarcinomas of the large and small bowel, as well as intestinal carcinoid tumors have been reported at increased rates in Crohn’s disease. We herein report a rare case of concurrent adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the small bowel presenting as intestinal obstruction and found incidentally at laparotomy in a 55 year old male with longstanding ileal Crohn’s disease. We performed a Medline Pubmed search for cases of synchronous or composite adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor in the setting

of Crohn’s disease and identified four similar cases. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor occurred both in newly diagnosed and longstanding Crohn’s disease, most commonly involved the terminal ileum and presented with symptoms mimicking Crohn’s disease. Diagnosis was made incidentally at laparotomy in all cases. Lymph node involvement was variable. Clinicians should be aware of this rare entity for expeditious surgical intervention. (C) 2011 European Crohn’s

and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The efficacy of melatonin co-administration on aflatoxicosis in chicks was investigated. Ross PM3 breed chicks were divided into groups of 10 and given conventional feed. One of the groups was kept as a control (C), and the others were given 150 ppb aflatoxin (AF1), 300 ppb aflatoxin (AF2), 150 ppb aflatoxin plus 10mg/kg/bwt

melatonin (AF1+M), 300 ppb aflatoxin plus 10mg/kg/bwt melatonin (AF2+M), 10 mg/kg/bwt GDC-0941 inhibitor melatonin (M), and 1% ethanol (E). After 21 day-treatment period, the chicks were sacrificed, liver and kidney tissues were collected, processed for immuno-histochemical staining, in situ TUNEL method, and biochemical analyses. Vacuolar degeneration, necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia in liver, and mild tubular degeneration in kidney were detected in AF groups. Pathological changes were markedly reduced in AF+M groups, and a microscopic view similar to group C was observed. Increased immunoreactivity against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine was detected in AF groups compared to weak immunoreactivity in group C. Immunoreactivity in AF+M groups was markedly reduced compared to AF groups and was similar to group C in liver and kidney. Many apoptotic cells were detected in the livers of AF groups, whereas there were no apoptotic cells in AF+M groups. While reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and kidney of AF groups were greatly reduced, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased. With melatonin co-administration, the levels of GSH and MDA approached to the values of group C.

In addition, fat has been recognised as a producer of B cell acti

In addition, fat has been recognised as a producer of B cell activating factor (BAFF) and of chemerin, an inducer at the chondrocyte level of IL1 beta, TNF

alpha, IL6, IL8 and MMP13, thus possibly contributing to cartilage damage. Since fat produces inflammation, to obtain a full control of the CV risk in RA, data suggest that it is therefore mandatory to have a “”tight control”" of both RA and MetS-related inflammation, H 89 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor especially if RA presents MetS as a co-morbidity.”
“Background: Breast cancer is one of the oncological diseases in which health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been most studied. This is mainly due to its high incidence and survival. This paper seeks to: review published research into HRQL among women with breast cancer in Spain; analyse the characteristics PLX4032 MAPK inhibitor of these studies; and describe the instruments used and main results reported.


The databases consulted were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Dialnet, IBECS, CUIDEN, ISOC and LILACS. The inclusion criteria required studies to: 1) include Spanish patients, and a breakdown of results where other types of tumours and/or women from other countries were also included; and, 2) furnish original data and measure HRQL using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.

Results: Spain ranked midway in the European Union in terms of the number of studies conducted IWR-1-endo on the HRQL of breast cancer patients. Of the total of 133 papers published from 1993 to 2009, 25 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, only 12 were considered as having good or excellent quality. A total of 2236 women participated in the studies analysed. In descending order of frequency,

the questionnaires used were the EORTC, FACT-B, QL-CA-Afex, SF-12, FLIC, RSCL and CCV. Five papers focused on validation or adaptation of questionnaires. Most papers examined HRQL in terms of type of treatment. Few differences were detected by type of chemotherapy, with the single exception of worse results among younger women treated with radiotherapy. In the short term, better results were reported for all HRQL components by women undergoing conservative rather than radical surgery. Presence of lymphedema was associated with worse HRQL. Three studies assessed differences in HRQL by patients’ psychological traits. Psychosocial disorder and level of depression and anxiety, regardless of treatment or disease stage, worsened HRQL. In addition, there was a positive effect among patients who reported having a “”fighting spirit”" and using “”denial”" as a defence mechanism. One study found that breast cancer patients scored worse than did healthy women on almost all SF-12 scales.

Conclusion: Research into health-related quality of life of breast-cancer patients is a little developed field in Spain.

Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF), deep venous thrombo

Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or pulmonary embolism (PE). Following interviews, three PACT-Q language versions were developed simultaneously and further pilot-tested by 19 patients. Linguistic validations were performed for additional language versions.

Results: Initial concepts were developed to cover three

areas of interest: ‘Treatment’, ‘Disease and Complications’ and ‘Information about disease and anticoagulant treatment’. After clinician and patient interviews, concepts were further refined into four domains and 17 concepts; test versions of the PACT-Q were then created simultaneously in three languages, each containing 27 items grouped into four domains: “”Treatment Expectations”" (7 items), “”Convenience”" (11 items), Alvocidib nmr “”Burden of Disease and Treatment”" (2 items) and “”Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction”" (7 items). No item was deleted or added after pilot testing as patients found the PACT-Q easy to understand and appropriate in length in all languages. The PACT-Q was divided into two parts: the first part to measure the expectations and the second to measure the convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction, for evaluation prior to and after anticoagulant treatment, respectively. selleckchem Eleven additional language versions were linguistically validated.


The PACT-Q has been rigorously developed and linguistically validated. It is available in 14 languages for use with thromboembolic patients, including AF, PE and DVT patients. Its

Saracatinib validation and psychometric properties have been tested and are presented in a separate manuscript.”
“Microbiological behavior of fresh-cut cabbage as affected by packaging treatments including high oxygen (MAP1: 70 kPa O-2 + 15 kPa CO2/balanced N-2), low oxygen (MAP2: 5 kPa O-2 + 15 kPa CO2/balanced N-2), and moderate vacuum (MVP), in combination with gas permeable (LDPE) and barrier (Ny/PE) films, was investigated. Spoilage bacteria and pathogens were inoculated on shredded cabbage, and observed for viable cell counts during storage at 5 degrees C. Overall population of the tested bacteria was noticeably reduced in MAP1 with Ny/PE, but was little influenced by MAP2. However, the inoculated bacteria in MVP with Ny/PE significantly increased or leveled off. In sensory evaluation, the barrier packages maintained better visual quality compared to the permeable. Results indicate that packages with high O-2 and CO2 in the barrier film showed considerable microbial inhibition without deteriorating visual quality. Therefore, it can be applied as a promising tool to secure microbial safety of fresh-cut vegetables at refrigerated temperatures.

A significant relationship between miR expression levels (miRs -1

A significant relationship between miR expression levels (miRs -1, -21, -29a, and -133a) and aortic diameter was identified; as aortic diameter LEE011 supplier increased, miR expression decreased. Through the use of a bioinformatics approach, members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, proteins involved in TAA development, were examined for putative miR binding sites. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were identified as potential targets for miR-29a and miR-133a, respectively, and MMP-2 was subsequently verified as a miR-29a target in vitro. A significant inverse relationship between miR-29a and total MMP-2 was then identified in the clinical TAA specimens.

Conclusions-These findings demonstrate altered miR expression patterns in clinical JNK-IN-8 nmr TAA

specimens, suggesting that the loss of specific miR expression may allow for the elaboration of specific MMPs capable of driving aortic remodeling during TAA development. Importantly, these data suggest that these miRs have biological and clinical relevance to the behavior of TAAs and may provide significant targets for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:605-613.)”
“Composites have been made from single-wall carbon nanotubes in a polyethylene (PE) matrix, in which different methods of preparation were used to disperse the nanotubes. The study includes using either the refined pure nanotubes (P-NT) as the source,

or the original silica supported nanotubes (SS-NT). SS-NT contained nanotubes still incorporated in and around the silica as originally grown. Composites were then made by (1) coprecipitation from a suspension of P-NT or SS-NT in a PE solution, or (2) by forming a polymerization catalyst from the SS-NT, and using it to polymerize ethylene, which ruptures and expands the silica as polymer builds LIP ill the pores. Extrusion was also studied as a method of additional dispersion. Nanotubes were found to have a powerful effect on the melt rheology, increasing the low shear viscosity dramatically. Increasing

the nanotube concentration also increased the flexural and tensile moduli, decreased the elongation, and increased the electrical conductivity. Consistent trends were observed from all of these diverse properties: SS-NT had a stronger effect than P-NT, and within the SS-NT group the choice of silica type also had a major effect. Polymerization was generally preferred as the method of dispersing the nanotubes. The conductivity, which in some cases was quite high, was found to be pressure sensitive. Conductive NT/PE composites could be molded into films or extruded into other shapes, or comolded with other PE. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 589-601, 2009″
“Purpose of reviewTo review the classical paradigm of leukocyte migration and present new evidence that cognate antigen, and not signaling via G(i)-coupled chemokine receptors, drives the migration of effector and memory T cells into vascularized organ transplants.

Thus, CCR2 may be a potential target to attenuate

Thus, CCR2 may be a potential target to attenuate PKC412 nmr alloimmune

responses after lung transplantation.”
“Many properties of polypropylene mesh that are causative in producing the complications that our patients are experiencing were published in the literature prior to the marketing of most currently used mesh configurations and mesh kits. These factors were not sufficiently taken into account prior to the sale of these products for use in patients. This report indicates when this information was available to both mesh kit manufacturers and the Food and Drug Administration.”
“In view of the emergence of wide ranging applications in the areas such as environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, defense, security and sensing etc., it is indispensable to develop resourceful mid-infrared photodetectors. In this article, we present potential design considerations exploiting plasmonic effects in the conventional heterojunction mid-infrared detectors, optimized for their operation in 8-14 mu m spectral range. Design issues concerning GaAs-AlGaAs based plasmonic

photodetectors are investigated using modal expansion method (MEM) in conjunction with Rayleigh expansion. Simple but insightful fitting TPX-0005 chemical structure expressions useful for designing practical photodetectors are presented. The effects of crucial design parameters on the photodetector performance are discussed in detail. Using metallic grating based plasmonic element, about 20 fold absorption enhancement is predicted, which is comparable or greater than that recently reported for InAs (Quantum Dots) and GaInNAs (Quantum Well) detectors. Photodetector designs showing considerable improvement in the responsivity and the specific detectivity, compared to their nonplasmonic but otherwise identical counterpart LY2603618 cell line are presented. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3548896]“
“Skin rejection remains a major hurdle in reconstructive transplantation. We investigated molecular markers of skin rejection with particular attention to lymphocyte trafficking. Skin biopsies (n = 174) from five human hand transplant recipients were analyzed for rejection, characteristics

of the infiltrate and lymphocytic adhesion markers. The cellular infiltrate predominantly comprised CD3+ T cells. CD68, Foxp3 and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression and the CD4/CD8 increased with severity of rejection. Lymphocyte adhesion markers were upregulated upon rejection, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin correlated best with severity of rejection. Guided by the findings, a specific E- and P-selectin inhibitor was investigated for its effect on skin rejection in a rat hind limb allotransplant model. While efomycine M (weekly s.c. injection into the graft) alone had no effect, long-term allograft survival was achieved when combined with antithymocyte globulin and tacrolimus (control group without efomycine M rejected at postoperative day [POD] 61 +/- 1).

Pre-incubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with

Pre-incubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with protein kinase inhibitors (K252a and staurosporine) strongly inhibited both basal and Al3+-enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents (malate efflux). Pre-incubation with phosphatase inhibitors (okadaic acid and cyclosporine A) resulted in a modest inhibition of the TaALMT1-mediated currents. Exposure to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents. NCT-501 Since these observations suggest that TaALMT1 transport activity

is regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation, we proceeded to modify candidate amino acids in the TaALMT1 Wnt inhibitor protein in an effort to identify structural motifs

underlying the process regulating phosphorylation. The transport properties of eight single point mutations (S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, S384A, T323A and Y184F) generated in amino acid residues predicted to be phosphorylation sites and examined electrophysiologically. The basic transport properties of mutants S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, T323A and Y184F were not altered relative to the wild-type TaALMT1. Likewise the sensitivity of these mutants to staurosporine resembled that observed for the wild-type transporter. However, the mutation S384A was noticeable, as in oocytes expressing this mutant protein TaALMT1-mediated basal and Al-enhanced currents were significantly inhibited, and the currents were insensitive to staurosporine or PMA. These findings indicate that S384 is an essential residue regulating TaALMT1 activity via direct protein phosphorylation, which precedes Al3+ enhancement of transport activity.”
“The analysis of cytokines secreted by antigen-specific lymphocytes is hampered

in goats by the paucity of species-specific reagents yet it is crucial to study immune responses to infections. To overcome this limit, two RepSox order commercial kits designed to measure soluble bovine IL-4 (by ELISA) and frequencies of bovine IFN-gamma secreting cells (by ELISPOT) were tested for cross-reactivity in goats. In addition, an ELISA specific to bovine/ovine IL-4 and employing two monoclonal antibodies, clones CC313 and CC314, was tested as well. Concanavalin A-stimulated caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures were studied and they exhibited high levels of soluble IL-4 and high frequencies of IFN-gamma secreting cells. In addition, the two IL-4 ELISAs detected similar amounts of cytokine. To start defining the cytokine response triggered by caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection, PBMC cultures were setup from goats naturally or experimentally infected with CpHV-1.

Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the vari

Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the variables independently associated with Em were: age (beta 0.364; P = 0.0001), GFR (beta 0.101; P = 0.019), and the presence of diabetes (beta 0.166; P = 0.002). Our study showed that in hypertensive patients

with CKD the presence of diabetes is associated with increased LV-wall thicknesses and concentric geometry; further, diabetes together with renal function (GFR) is associated with worse diastolic function, independently of potential confounders, such as age, gender, body mass index and blood pressure. Journal of Human Hypertension (2011) 25, 144-151; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.96; published online 14 October check details 2010″
“A model for the adsorption of gold from I-2/I- aqueous solutions onto a cellulose acetate (CA)-polyaniline (PANI) porous membrane is presented. The adsorption of gold is represented by an ion-exchange overall reaction in which AuI2- ions replace the Cl- ions at the active sites of the polyaniline matrix. The model incorporates the external mass transfer of AuI2- from the bulk solution to the membrane surface, followed by the pore diffusion of AuI2- to reach the active sites in the membrane. The overall ion-exchange reaction was assumed to achieve local instantaneous

equilibrium. Verification of the kinetic model with the experimental data showed that the effective diffusivity of AuI2- within the membrane is about 8.3 x 10(-6) cm(2)/s. The potential applications of the present formulation are discussed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The objectives of this study were

to estimate the heritabilities Semaxanib for and genetic correlations among resistance to bacterial cold-water disease and growth traits in a population of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bacterial cold-water disease, a chronic disease of rainbow trout, is caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. This bacterium also causes acute losses in young fish, known as rainbow trout fry syndrome. Selective breeding for increased disease resistance is a promising strategy VX-809 mouse that has not been widely used in aquaculture. At the same time, improving growth performance is critical for efficient production. At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, reducing the negative impact of diseases on rainbow trout culture and improving growth performance are primary objectives. In 2005, when fish averaged 2.4 g, 71 full-sib families were challenged with F. psychrophilum and evaluated for 21 d. Overall survival was 29.3% and family rates of survival varied from 1.5 to 72.5%. Heritability of postchallenge survival, an indicator of disease resistance, was estimated to be 0.35 +/- 0.09. Body weights at 9 and 12 mo posthatch and growth rate from 9 to 12 mo were evaluated on siblings of the fish in the disease challenge study. Growth traits were moderately heritable, from 0.32 for growth rate to 0.61 for 12-mo BW.