Nanocrystalline calcite and metal nanoparticles can also block ex

Nanocrystalline calcite and metal nanoparticles can also block extreme level of UV.”
“Traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability among young people. However outcomes from traumatic brain injury can be improved by use of parameters such as intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) to guide treatment, early surgical intervention and management of these patients in a neurosurgical centre.

To examine the incidence of traumatic brain injury, compliance with best practice

guidelines and outcomes in patients admitted to an intensive care unit in a major teaching hospital in Ireland.

Retrospective chart review.

Forty-six patients were admitted over a 3-year period, half of whom had GCS < 8. Medical management was appropriate but only two patients were transferred to a neurosurgical centre and none received ICP monitoring. Overall SN-38 mw mortality of 37% was higher than international norms.

Irish patients with severe head injury do not currently receive care in accordance with international evidence-based guidelines.”
“Objective To compare health care

resource utilization before and after minimally invasive lumbar decompression (MILD) procedure. Design Case series. Setting Veteran’s Administration health care system. Subjects All patients who underwent MILD at the author’s institution. Methods The charts of 22 patients who underwent MILD procedure were reviewed. The primary comparison

was between the amount of time spent in specialty care and the number of interventional procedures performed before and after MILD. Each patient’s Selleck CFTRinh-172 current status and need for continued specialty care were secondary measures. Patient satisfaction with MILD, and pre- and post-VAS were recorded as well. Results After MILD, there was close to 45% reduction in time spent in specialty care and an almost fourfold decrease in number of interventional pain procedures performed on patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Over half the patients no longer required chronic pain management to treat their LSS symptoms. Conclusions Not only is MILD a reliable method to treat LSS, MILD also appears to reduce the consumption of limited health care learn more resources.”
“Two typical kinds of InGaN quantum dots (QDs) have been grown on sapphires under different conditions through modifying the NH(3) flow rate using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition: small spherical dots with a high dot density and large truncated pyramidal dots with a low dot density. The small dots have been found typically coherent and defect-free, while a strain relaxation has often been observed in the large dots. Consequently, this leads to a massive difference in optical properties between them. The optical properties have been investigated by means of temperature-dependent and excitation power-dependent microphotoluminescence measurements.

“This study assessed the risk for maternal complications

“This study assessed the risk for maternal complications

in women and neonatal outcomes in children conceived following assisted reproductive treatment as compared with spontaneously conception and also separately evaluated conventional IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The prospective cohort included 1161 women with singleton pregnancies: 561 who conceived following assisted reproduction (223 following IVF and 338 following ICSI) and 600 who conceived spontaneously. No differences were ALK inhibitor drugs observed in pregnancy complications (including spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes and Caesarean delivery) except for significantly increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding in assisted reproduction pregnancies (21.4% versus 12.9%; OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.37), which was prominent in women who reported Cilengitide datasheet polycystic ovary syndrome.

Neonates born following assisted reproduction had increased risk for prematurity (10.6% versus 5.3%; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87), and IVF, but not ICSI, was associated with significantly increased risk for prematurity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.28-4.37) and low birthweight (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.46). In conclusion, this study observed only an increased risk for excess vaginal bleeding as a pregnancy-associated complication in singleton pregnancies following assisted compared with spontaneous conception. However, singleton neonates born following IVF, but not ICSI, were at increased risk for prematurity. (C) 2013, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published Selleckchem VX 770 by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

angiomyolipoma (eAMLoma) is an uncommon renal mesenchymal tumor with malignant potential. It is composed of tumor cells arranged in an epithelioid manner. Differential diagnosis from renal cell carcinoma is often challenging because of its epithelioid morphology. Herein is reported a case of eAMLoma, involving a 49-year-old man with eAMLoma. The patient had undergone radical nephrectomy via retroperitoneal laparoscope successfully. He had an uneventful postoperative recovery. The tumor was positive for Desmin, Hmb45, and Sma. We recommend surgical treatment and a follow-up regimen similar to that for renal carcinoma. There was no recurrence and metastases after 1-year follow-up.”
“Photoemission work by Nakamura [J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043516 (2007)] on the GaAs(111)B(root 19x root 19)R23 degrees surface shows that the surface region contains three different types of As atoms and two different types of Ga atoms. The outstanding feature of their data is the presence of Ga atoms in the outermost layer of the reconstruction, which they conclude is inconsistent with published models. However, there are two published models, which were not identified in the paper, that contain these top-layer Ga atoms.

We compare conditional logistic regression and the missing-parent

We compare conditional logistic regression and the missing-parents approach under several risk scenarios.

Results We show that the missing-parents approach improves power when some families have more than one unaffected sibling and that under weak assumptions the approach permits

the incorporation of supplemental cases who have no sibling available and supplemental click here controls whose case sibling is unavailable (e.g., due to disability or death).

Conclusion The missing-parents approach offers both improved statistical efficiency and asymptotically unbiased estimation for genotype relative risks and genotype-by-exposure interaction parameters.”
“Objective: The aim of this study is to define the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of acute mastoiditis (AM) in children in order to optimize diagnostic work-up and treatment.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 188 children between 3 months and 15 years of age (15 +/- 24 months; median +/- SD) were referred to our pediatric ENT emergency center for AM during a 7-year period (December 2001-January 2008).

Results: Fifty

seven percent were male and 43% were female. Clinical follow-up duration was 3.9 +/- 0.7 months (mean +/- SEM). The incidence of AM remained stable during the whole study period. Microbiological samples (n = 236) were negative in 33% of cases. The most frequently isolated germs were Streptococcus pneumoniae (51%). Streptococcus pyogenes (11.5%), Anaerobes (6.5%), and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (6.5%). Paracentesis, puncture of retro auricular abscess under local anesthesia, and peroperative samples all contributed selleck to isolate the involved germ(s). All the patients were hospitalized and received CP358774 intravenous antibiotics, and 36.2% (n = 68) underwent surgery. Several surgical procedures were necessary in 4 cases (2.1%). AM recurrences requiring a second hospitalization were observed in 8 patients (4.3%). The only observed complication was lateral sinus thrombosis (n = 6; 3.2%). Surgical failures, requiring more than one surgical procedure, were more frequent in case of: (i) presence of Anaerobes (p <= 0.001) or Gram-negative

bacteria (p <= 0.05) in microbiological samples; (ii) surgical drainage without mastoidectomy (p <= 0.001). Recurrences were more frequent in AM due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Conclusions: Based on our findings and on literature data, a protocol was established in order to standardize the management of pediatric AM in our center. The mains points are: no systematic surgery; if surgery is indicated, it must encompass a mastoidectomy; broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment covering the most commonly involved germs (3rd generation cephalosporin) and secondarily adapted to the results of microbiological samples. If the infection is not controlled after 48 h of intravenous antibiotherapy, a mastoidectomy had to be performed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alternatively, this accumulation could be just a consequence of a

Alternatively, this accumulation could be just a consequence of a decreased nitrogen demand caused by reduced extension, which was triggered by water deficit and exogenous ABA treatment.

Several enzyme activities involved in glutamate metabolism and genes encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1b; EC, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH3; EC, and asparagine synthetase (AS; EC were up-regulated by water deficit but not by ABA, except for a gene encoding delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not assigned). Thus, ABA-dependent and ABA-independent regulatory systems would Nutlin-3 order seem to exist, differentially controlling development, water content, and nitrogen metabolism under water deficit.”
“A process has been developed for post fabrication manipulation of silica nanowire lengths with reproducible mean length target ability by manual grinding in liquid media. The

process selleck chemicals is based on the relationship between nanowire Reynolds number and the laminar or turbulent motion of nanowires in a media. Mean lengths of nanowires prepared by this process are predicted to be inversely proportional to the density over viscosity of the media used. Experimental results giving the mean length measurements are in very good agreement with the predicted dependence on medium density and viscosity. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3611423]“
“Proteases regulate

numerous physiological functions in all living organisms. Because of their contribution to beta APP processing, alpha-, beta- and gamma-secretases have focused particular attention of researchers in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) during the past 20 years. Whereas the beta -secretase BACE1 and the heterotetrameric presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase complex were identified between 1995 and 2002, alpha-secretase activity was attributed to previously described ADAM10 and ADAM17, two members of the type I integral membrane protein family called ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease). ADAM10 and/or find more ADAM17 target numerous substrates through various modes of action. This review focuses on the complex physiology of these alpha-secretases and will document their contribution to cancers, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and prion diseases besides their well characterized role in Alzheimer’s disease.”
“Transgenic tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with reduced mRNA levels of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (SlARF7) form parthenocarpic fruits with morphological characteristics that seem to be the result of both increased auxin and gibberellin (GA) responses during fruit growth. This paper presents a more detailed analysis of these transgenic lines. Gene expression analysis of auxin-responsive genes show that SlARF7 may regulate only part of the auxin signalling pathway involved in tomato fruit set and development.

Recent findings

Multiple variations of the original te

Recent findings

Multiple variations of the original technique of intestinal transplantation are now utilized according to the patients’ original diagnoses and/or degree of liver dysfunction. Multivisceral grafts can include both donor spleen and large intestine; preservation of the native spleen and pancreas is possible in some cases. Living donor intestinal transplantation is being described as alternative technique to minimize death on the waitlist.


Constant evolution in the surgical aspects of intestinal transplantation parallels the improvements that have taken place in the medical

management and immunosuppression. The transplant surgeon with full knowledge of all variations of intestinal transplant techniques will be able to tailor the type of surgery to each individual patient.”
“Chronic 3-deazaneplanocin A cost knee pain management with current nonpharmacological or pharmacological measures often has suboptimal results and significant side effects. Sciatic nerve pulsed radiofrequency (SNPRF) is an unexplored alternative for chronic knee pain management. We show a prospective short series of chronic knee pain patients managed with ultrasound-guided

SNPRF. Visual analogue click here scale (VAS) was measured at baseline and 4 weeks after the procedure. The study included 25 elderly patients with severe knee pain. A total of 47 procedures were performed during a 3-month period. VAS scores showed a significant pain difference (p < 0.001) in successive comparison. No patient reported adverse events during the 1-month follow-up period. Ultrasound-guided SNPRF is a new approach for chronic knee pain management that leads to significant pain reduction in the short term. Randomized studies with adequate size, longer follow-up period, and appropriate evaluating tools are warranted to verify these preliminary data.”
“Purpose We report our experience and literature review concerning surgical treatment of neurological burst fractures of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Materials and methods Nineteen patients with L5 neurological burst fractures were consecutively enrolled; 6 patients had complete motor deficits, and 12 had sphincter dysfunction. We performed

18 posterior and one combined approaches. To avoid kyphosis, posterior internal fixation was achieved by positioning patients on the operating table with hips and knees signaling pathway fully extended. At the latest follow-up (mean 22 months, range 10-66), neurological recovery, canal remodeling and L4-S1 angle were evaluated.

Results Vertebral body replacement was difficult, which therefore resulted in an oblique position of the cage. Vertebral bodies still remained deformed, even though fixation allowed for an acceptable profile (22 degrees, range 20-35). We observed three cases of paralysis, five complete, and three incomplete recoveries. In the remaining eight patients, sphincter impairment was the only finding. In 15 patients, pain was absent or occasional; in four individuals, it was continuous but not invalidating.

In 25 procedures, image quality was sufficient for an inspection

In 25 procedures, image quality was sufficient for an inspection of the adjacent subarachnoid YM155 solubility dmso space. In six cases, the surgeon detected further adhesions that obstructed

CSF flow in the adjacent subarachnoid space not visualized with the microscope. In all cases, these adhesions were identified and removed during microsurgery. Postoperative MRI scans demonstrated free CSF flow in all patients and a decrease in syrinx size in six patients.

Conclusion. Arachnoscopy is a helpful adjunct to microsurgery and can be performed safely and easily. It allows the surgeon to detect further adhesions in the subarachnoid space, which would remain undetected by microscopy alone.”
“. The pharmacokinetics and in dosing regimens of the currently available pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alfa molecules differ greatly, depending on the size and nature of their polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety. Peginterferon alfa-2a has a branched 40 kDa PEG chain Acalabrutinib covalently attached to lysine residues and

circulates as an intact molecule. On the other hand, peginterferon alfa-2b has a linear 12 kDa PEG chain covalently attached to interferon-a-2b via an unstable urethane bond that is hydrolysed after injection, releasing native interferon alfa-2b. The difference in pegylation between the two peginterferons has a significant impact on their pharmacokinetic properties. Data from comparative and non-comparative studies indicate that peginterferon alfa-2b has a shorter half-life in serum than peginterferon alfa-2a, and a significant proportion of patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2b may have selleck screening library trough concentrations below the limit of detection during the latter part of the 7-day dosing schedule. However, the pharmacodynamic parameters of the two drugs appear to be similar.”
“Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)spp., infestations are a major veterinary problem that impacts cattle production worldwide. Recently, vaccination has emerged as an alternative to control tick infestations that has shown the advantage of being cost-effective, avoids

environmental contamination and prevents selection of drug-resistant ticks resulting from repeated acaricides applications. However, the success of vaccination is highly dependent on the availability of effective vaccines at affordable prices. Recombinant DNA technology has provided the mean for producing antigens in large quantities making possible the development and commercialization of anti-tick vaccines. In the early 1990s, a technology was developed to produce a commercial anti-tick vaccine based on the recombinant BM86 (rBM86) antigen isolated from R. (Boophilus) microplus and intracellularly expressed in Pichia pastoris. However, the technological process for its production was expensive. Herein we conducted an economical analysis of this technology in comparison with other reported processes.

105 +/- 0 295 vs 0 798 +/- 0 248; p < 0 001), and NT-proBNP l

105 +/- 0.295 vs. 0.798 +/- 0.248; p < 0.001), and NT-proBNP levels decreased significantly in patients compared to pre-transplantation values (1759 +/- 1154 vs. 1117 +/- 600 pg/mL; p < 0.001), although they were still above levels found in controls (1117 +/- 600 vs. 856 +/- 123 pg/mL; p < 0.05). NT-proBNP

levels above 2000 pg/mL before transplantation were significantly associated with risk for cardiovascular events after procedure (37% vs. 9%, p = 0.008).

Conclusions: In cirrhotic patients, diastolic function and cardiac structure deteriorate after LT. Compared to controls, NT-proBNP levels tend to be higher before and after transplantation. The mechanisms and consequences of these Autophagy signaling inhibitor results require further study.”
“Here we report on 4 hospitalized patients with dengue-influenza virus coinfections. All patients were RT-PCR positive for dengue virus and pandemic influenza A H1N1. Clinical findings at presentation ranged from influenza-like illness to severe dengue. Clinical progression of the infections

varied, but all developed dengue symptoms and had interstitial infiltrates. Three cases required intensive care management and 1 case was fatal.”
“The structural, electronic, elastic and some thermodynamic properties of the cubic C15 structure ZrV2 compound under pressure are investigated by first-principles calculations. Our results for the equilibrium unit cell volume, bulk modulus and band structure are consistent with the calculated and experimental results. Cubic ZrV2

is mechanically NU7441 in vivo stable according DZNeP datasheet to the elastic stability criteria and shows ductile with the G/B and Cauchy pressure analysis. Moreover the pressure and temperature dependence of the bulk modulus, specific heat, Debye temperature and thermal expansion coefficient are discussed, among them our calculated Debye temperature is in good agreement with experiments. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3590707]“
“Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) over conventional dose therapy for patients with multiple myeloma. There is limited experience with non-cryopreserved autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Between January 2004 and February 2010, we treated 38 patients with myeloma (mean age = 50.6) with a preparative regimen of Melphalan 140-200 mg/m(2) and non-cryopreserved ASCT. All the apheresis products were kept in a conventional blood bank refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 2 d before infusion. The median time to platelet count of > 20 x 10(9)/L was 13 d (range 10-31). Also, the median time to absolute neutrophil count > 0.5 x 10(9)/L was 11 d (range 9-21). All the 38 patients were engrafted and there was not graft failure in this study group. Twenty-nine of 38 (76.3%) patients are alive and without disease activity after a median follow-up of 31 months (range 6-77).

5 mg/L vs 20 6 +/- 9 3 mg/L; p = 0 001) and the time to reach MP

5 mg/L vs. 20.6 +/- 9.3 mg/L; p = 0.001) and the time to reach MPA-C(max) (t(max)) was longer with PPI (60.0 +/- 27.8 min vs. 46.4 +/- 22.2 min; p = 0.05). This is the first study to document an important drug interaction between a widely used immunosuppressive agent and a class of drugs frequently used in transplant patients. This interaction results in a decreased MMF drug exposure which may lead to patients having a higher risk for acute rejection and transplant vasculopathy.”
“Objective-To determine the relationships among traditional and laparoscopic surgical skills, spatial analysis skills, and

video gaming proficiency Bindarit in vitro of third-year veterinary students.

Design-Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

Sample-A convenience sample of 29 third-year veterinary students.

Procedures-The students had completed basic surgical skills training with inanimate objects but had no experience with soft tissue, orthopedic, or laparoscopic surgery; the spatial analysis test; or the video games that were used in the study. Scores for traditional surgical, learn more laparoscopic, spatial analysis, and video gaming skills were determined, and associations among these were analyzed by means of Spearman’s

rank order correlation coefficient (r(s)).

Results-A significant positive association (r(s) = 0.40) was detected between summary scores for video game performance and laparoscopic skills, but not between video game performance and traditional surgical skills scores. Spatial analysis scores were positively Nutlin-3 price (r(s) = 0.30) associated with video game performance scores; however, that result was not significant. Spatial analysis scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic surgical skills scores. Traditional surgical skills scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic skills or spatial analysis scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study indicated

video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience. Additional studies would be required to identify methods for improvement of traditional surgical skills.”
“With the increasing availability of pigs genetically engineered to protect their tissues from the human immune response, research into xenotransplantation is progressing steadily. One potential route to the clinic would be the use of a pig heart as a bridge to allotransplantation. This would only be ethical if the outcome was realistically estimated to be as good as, or better than, bridging with a mechanical device. The experimental results that would be required to warrant consideration of a clinical trial and the patients in whom bridging with a xenograft might be considered preferable to a mechanical device are discussed. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:838-40 (C) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

However, data characterizing

However, data characterizing SNX-5422 cancer patients’ ability to quit is scarce, particularly in developing countries. Such information is valuable in highlighting the potential of cessation interventions in countries where smoking rates are high and antismoking policies are not yet fully implemented. Objectives: To measure the abstinence rates and identify reasons for the failure to quit smoking in patients visiting a smoking cessation clinic in a comprehensive cancer center in Jordan. Methods: Through retrospective medical chart review and prospective follow-up by

phone, we studied long-term abstinence rates and reasons for the failure to quit smoking in 156 cancer patients referred to the smoking cessation clinic to receive counseling and pharmacological treatment. Patient demographics, clinical and smoking characteristics and long-term abstinence

at 12 months were recorded, as were reasons for the failure to quit smoking. Results: The 12-month abstinence rate was 21.2%. The main reasons for failing to quit smoking included personal or professional stressful situations, not being able to handle withdrawal and the belief that quitting had no value. Conclusion: Abstinence rates in Jordanian cancer patients fall at the lower end of the range that has been reported in the literature for cancer patients. Efforts to improve PD98059 mw these rates should focus on assisting patients in handling stress, and in adjusting medications to improve withdrawal symptoms. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Mahaim fibers with decremental atrioventricular (AV) node-like conduction properties comprise less than 3 % of accessory pathways. Radiofrequency ablation of right atriofascicular pathways guided by a distinct Mahaim potential detected at the anterolateral to posterolateral tricuspid annulus or in the right BI 6727 in vitro ventricular free wall is a safe and highly effective treatment method. The case report presents a 16-year-old boy with Ebstein’s anomaly and symptomatic wide complex tachyarrhythmia. The electrophysiologic

study and the entire ablation procedure were performed using a three-dimensional mapping system (EnSite Velocity; St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA). No fluoroscopy was used during the procedure. Electrophysiologic evaluation demonstrated typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and Mahaim tachycardia with a wide QRS and a left bundle branch block pattern. After Mahaim potential was located at the lateral tricuspid annulus, successful cryoablation was performed with an 8-mm-tip catheter followed by slow pathway ablation to eliminate typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. Cryoablation with an 8-mm-tip catheter can be an alternative treatment option for children with Mahaim tachycardia.

We tested the hypothesis that 12-step self-help group attendance

We tested the hypothesis that 12-step self-help group attendance is more effective for non-abstinent patients than for abstinent patients. We also controlled for self-selection effects by using propensity SBE-β-CD mouse score analyses and we cross-validated Our results in a second sample of patients (N=2173).

Results: Sample 1. Patients abstinent at 1-year post-treatment who attended 12-step self-help group meetings were no more likely to be abstinent at 4 years than abstinent patients who did not attend. However, for patients not abstinent at 1 year, a significant improvement

in abstinence rates at 4 years emerged for those who attended 12-step self-help groups compared to those who did not (42% vs. 28.9%). A similar pattern emerged for SUD problems. There were no benefits from 12-step self-help group attendance for patients abstinent at 1 year, but non-abstinent patients who attended 12-step self-help groups had significantly Fewer problems at 4 years. Sample 2. The cross-validation yielded consistent results as 12-step self-help group attendance led to higher abstinence rates and fewer SUD problems only among patients non-abstinent at interim assessment.

Conclusions: Individual’s abstinence Status should be considered when evaluating

the potential influence of 12-step self-help group attendance on SUD outcomes. In addition, increased clinical resources Should this website focus oil assessing patients after discharge and oil improving linkage of non-abstinent patients to self-help groups. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Background: The occurrence of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) DZNeP purchase is rare but severe. There are few reports that have examined the correlation between pre-HSCT chemotherapeutic exposure and DAH. Objectives: We examine the role of pre-HSCT chemotherapeutic exposure, conditioning regimens, pre-HSCT comorbidities and transplant-related

complications in the development of DAH after allo-HSCT and evaluate the effect of the high-dose corticosteroid strategy on DAH. Methods: A retrospective nested case-control study was designed. Cases with DAH and controls matched for year of allo-HSCT and length of follow-up were identified from a cohort of 597 patients who underwent allo-HSCT between 2006 and 2011 for acute leukemia. Results: Twenty-two patients suffered from DAH; the mean age at the time of presentation was 30.4 years (+/- 12.9) and the mean time to presentation was 7.8 months (+/- 8.1) post-HSCT. The pre-HSCT cyclophosphamide exposure and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were significantly higher among the DAH cases compared with the controls, and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose of >= 5 g/m(2) was independently associated with DAH (OR = 3.4, p = 0.030).