Results: 84% of CQ25 versus 51% of CQ40 patients experienced para

Results: 84% of CQ25 versus 51% of CQ40 patients experienced parasite recrudescence during follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.38). Cure rates were significantly improved with CQ40, particularly among adults. Fever clearance time, parasite clearance time, and proportions gametocytaemic post-treatment were similar between treatment groups. Second-line CQ40 treatment resulted in higher failure rates than first-line CQ40 treatment. CQ-resistance marker pfcrt 76T was found in all isolates analysed, while pfmdr1 86Y and 184Y were found in 18% and 37% of isolates respectively.

Conclusions: CQ is not suitable

for first-line falciparum treatment in Afghan refugee communities. The extended-dose CQ regimen can overcome 39% of resistant infections that would AC220 recrudesce under the standard regimen, but the high failure rate after directly observed treatment demonstrates its use is inappropriate.”

Oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes a number of chronic inflammatory processes including oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) with controversial diagnosis and prognosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme for inflammatory processes and cellular proliferation. Its overexpression in some premalignant chronic inflammatory diseases and malignant neoplasias could point to its potential as a prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to analyze the COX-2 expression in different subtypes of OLD because of its potential to be a marker of altered behavior.

Study design. Forty-four JQ-EZ-05 samples from OLD patients were studied (30 females and 14 males) and classified according to their clinical (C1: only papular lesions/C2: papular and other lesions) and histological

features (HT: OLP typical/HC: OLP compatible) according to published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical procedure was performed for COX-2 expression and a comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed.

Results. Epithelial COX-2 overexpression was observed in 24 (54.5%) cases (C1: 13 [54.2%]/C2: 11 [45.8%], HT: 9 [37.5%]/HC: 15 [62.5%], P = .032). Inflammatory COX-2 overexpression was observed in 14 (31.8%) cases (C1: 6 [42.9%]/C2: 8 [57.1%], HT: Selleckchem PF 00299804 4 [28.6%]/HC: 10 [71.4%], P = .032).

Conclusion. Differences in COX-2 expression in subtypes of OLD may distinguish cases with a higher premalignant potential. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:738-743)”
“Background: Accurate parasitological diagnosis of malaria is essential for targeting treatment where more than one species coexist. In this study, three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) (AccessBio CareStart (CSPfPan), CareStart PfPv (CSPfPv) and Standard Diagnostics Bioline (SDBPfPv)) were evaluated for their ability to detect natural Plasmodium vivax infections in a basic clinic setting.

We look at the first derivative of the entanglement and the posit

We look at the first derivative of the entanglement and the position-space information entropy to infer information about a possible quantum phase transition. (C) 2010 American selleck products Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3364065]“
“Objective-To estimate the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in dairy cows immediately prior to surgical correction of left-displaced abomasum (LDA) for determining associations between BHB concentration and removal from the herd <= 30 days after surgery and to evaluate postsurgical risk of removal

for cows with the BHB concentration that had highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting this outcome.

Design-Prospective cohort study.

Animals-136 dairy cows with LDA diagnosed between 5 and 30 days in lactation (ie, days in milk).

Procedures-Blood BHB concentration was measured immediately prior to surgery. All cows underwent surgical correction of LDA while standing. Follow-up information was obtained 30 days after surgery. Receiver operating characteristic Smad2 phosphorylation curves were used to estimate a critical threshold value for BHB concentration that was associated with removal from the herd, and this value was used in Poisson regression to estimate risk ratio for the same outcome.

Results-While controlling for parity in the model, cows with a BHB concentration

<1.2 mmol/L at the time of LDA surgery were 2.5 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.0) to be removed from the herd <= 30 days after surgery, compared with cows that had a BHB concentration

>= 1.2 mmol/L.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that blood BHB concentration in dairy cows undergoing surgical correction of LDA may potentially be Small molecule library mw a useful prognostic indicator for the likelihood of removal from the herd <= 30 days after surgery. Further research is needed to evaluate other risk factors that may be associated With this outcome.”
“Characterizing infectivity as a function of pathogen dose is integral to microbial risk assessment. Dose-response experiments usually administer doses to subjects at one time. Phenomenological models of the resulting data, such as the exponential and the Beta-Poisson models, ignore dose timing and assume independent risks from each pathogen. Real world exposure to pathogens, however, is a sequence of discrete events where concurrent or prior pathogen arrival affects the capacity of immune effectors to engage and kill newly arriving pathogens. We model immune effector and pathogen interactions during the period before infection becomes established in order to capture the dynamics generating dose timing effects. Model analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the time over which exposures accumulate and the risk of infection.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Conductive polymer particles, polyaniline (PANI)-coated poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid) [P(MMA-BA-AA)] nanoparticles, were prepared. The P(MMA-BA-AA)/PANI core-shell complex particles were synthesized with a two-step miniemulsion

polymerization method with P(MMA-BA-AA) as the core and PANI as the shell. The first step was to prepare the P(MMA-BA-AA) latex particles as the core via miniemulsion polymerization and then to prepare the P(MMA-BAAA)/PANI core-shell particles. The aniline monomer was added to the mixture of water and core nanoparticles. The aniline monomer could be attracted near the outer surface of the core particles. The polymerization of aniline was started under the action of ammonium persulfate (APS). The final product was the desired core-shell nanoparticles. The morphology of the selective HDAC inhibitors P(MMA-BA-AA) and P(MMA-BAAA)/PANI particles was characterized with transmission electron microscopy. The core-shell structure of the P(MMA-BA-AA)/PANI composites

was further determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible measurements. The conductive flakes made from the core-shell latexes were prepared, and the electrical conductivities of the flakes were studied. The highest conductivity of the P(MMA-BA-AA)/PANI pellets was 2.05 S/cm. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123:

1401-1406, 2012″
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the technique and outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) combined with phacoemulsification for corneal opacity with coexisting cataract.

SETTING: Cornea Service, 3-Methyladenine purchase Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

METHODS: Eyes with cataract of varied nucleus grade and with different corneal pathologies were selected. Modified triple procedures were performed in all eyes.

RESULTS: Twenty eyes were evaluated. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after 3 months was 20/60 or better in 18 eyes. One eye had 20/80 CDVA as a result of perioperative and postoperative complications. One graft became opaque after postoperative infection.

CONCLUSION: Simultaneous DALK with phacoemulsification was feasible in eyes with coexisting corneal and lenticular pathology, and the outcomes were encouraging.”
“Background: While the majority of pathological gamblers are current cigarette smokers (CS), some have quit smoking (former smokers, FS) while others never smoked (never smokers, NS). The reasons for elevated smoking rates in pathological gambling are not known, but gamblers may use nicotine as a putative cognitive enhancer. This study evaluated impulsivity and cognitive flexibility in a sample of pathological gamblers with differing smoking status.

6)Ga(18 4) rods were measured at temperatures between -50 and +10

6)Ga(18.4) rods were measured at temperatures between -50 and +100 degrees C and tensile stresses of approximately +1, +10, +20, +30, and +40 MPa. Measurements were taken inside an environmental chamber using a spring to supply the stress. A stress change of about 2 MPa between -50 and +100 degrees C was typical. The saturation

magnetostriction is nearly independent of stress up to 20 MPa, drops only slightly at 30 MPa, and falls off rapidly at 40 MPa. At a given stress, the saturation magnetostriction decreases roughly linearly at similar to 0.3 x 10(-6)/degrees C. [doi: 10.1063/1.3357401]“
“Background: The aepEX Plus monitor (aepEX) utilizes a mid-latency auditory evoked potential-derived index of depth of hypnosis (DoH).

Objective: This observational study evaluates the performance of the aepEX as a DoH monitor for pediatric patients receiving

AZD4547 clinical trial propofol-remifentanil SB202190 anesthesia.

Methods: aepEX and BIS values were recorded simultaneously during surgery in three groups of 25 children (aged 1-3, 3-6 and 6-16 years). Propofol was administered by target-controlled infusion. The University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) was used to clinically assess the DoH during emergence. Prediction probability (Pk) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of both DoH monitors. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to describe the dose-response relationships for the aepEX, the BIS, and propofol plasma concentrations (Cp).

Results: The Pk for the aepEX and BIS was 0.36 and 0.21, respectively (P = 0.010). ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.77 and 0.88 for the aepEX and BIS, respectively (P = 0.644). At half-maximal effect (EC50), Cp of 3.13 and 3.06 were observed for the aepEX and BIS, respectively. The r(2) for the aepEX and BIS was 0.53 and 0.82, respectively.

Conclusion: The aepEX performs comparable to the BIS in differentiating between consciousness and unconsciousness, while performing inferior to the BIS in terms of distinguishing different levels of sedation and does not correlate well with the Cp in children receiving propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.”
“This study

aims to evaluate the association between Emricasan manufacturer pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and sexual functioning.

Retrospective chart review of consecutive all women who were referred with a primary complaint of sexual dysfunction. Women underwent standardized clinical evaluation including pelvic muscle strength which was ranked from 0 (weak) to 2 (strong). The duration of pelvic muscle contraction was also recorded in seconds. Sexual function was evaluated by using a validated questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI).

One hundred seventy-six women with a mean age of 37 +/- 11 years were included. Women with strong or moderate PFM scored significantly higher on the FSFI orgasmic and arousal domains than women with weak PFM (5.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma cfDNA levels were quantified by qua

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma cfDNA levels were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR at six different time-points (before treatment, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, and 24 weeks) in 18 metastatic cRCC patients receiving sorafenib, as assessed by CT examination according to RECIST 1.1.

RESULTS: A significantly lower plasma cfDNA level, measured SB202190 ic50 from 8 weeks to 24 weeks, was found in patients with remission or stable disease than in those with progression. Higher levels in plasma cfDNA levels during

the course of treatment indicated poor outcome. For predicting progression, a sensitivity of 66.7% was achieved at 100% specificity using cfDNA levels at 8 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of plasma cfDNA levels during the course of sorafenib therapy could identify metastatic cRCC patients who are likely to exhibit a poor response at an early stage.”
“In this study, a polar conductive filler [carbon black (CB)], a nonpolar polymer [polypropylene (PP)], and a polar polymer [nylon 6 (PA6)] were chosen to fabricate electrically conductive polymer composites by melt blending and compression molding. The morphological developments of these composites Emricasan supplier were studied.

Scanning electron microscopy results showed that in a CB-filled PP/PA6 (CPA) composite, CB particles were selectively dispersed in PA6 phases and could make the dispersed particles exist as microfiber particles, which could greatly improve the electrical conductivity. The PA6 and CB contents both could affect the morphologies of these composites. The results of electrical resistivity

measurements of these composites proved the formation of conductive networks. The resistivity-temperature behaviors of these composites were also studied. For CB-filled PP (CP) composites, there were apparent positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effects and an unrepeatable resistivity-temperature characteristic. However, for CPA composites, there were no PTC or NTC effects from room temperature to 180 degrees C, and the resistivity-temperature CBL0137 datasheet behavior showed a repeatable characteristic; this proved that CB particles were selectively dispersed in the PA6 phase from another point of view. All experimental results indicated that the addition of PA6 to a CP composite could lead to an expected morphological structure and improve the electrical conductivity of the CP composite. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1848-1855, 2009″
“Semiconductors doped with magnetic ion, the so-called diluted magnetic semiconductors, are promising candidates for spintronics. Herein, we report on magnetic anisotropy in Mn:Ge diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires. We grew single crystal Mn:Ge nanowires vertically on a Ge substrate and found the anisotropy in ratios of orbital to spin magnetic moments in the angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements.

001) The relief of symptoms was significantly superior in group

001). The relief of symptoms was significantly superior in group I compared with group II (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in epithelial atrophy and vaginal NVP-HSP990 chemical structure pH were detected in both the groups (P < 0.01) after treatment. The vaginal maturation values were also significantly improved at both study groups (P < 0.001). The mean maturation value was significantly higher in group I when compared with group II (P < 0.001).

Both treatments provided relief of vaginal symptoms, improved epithelial atrophy, decreased vaginal pH, and increased maturation of the vaginal epithelium. Those improvements

were greater in group I. Hyaluronic acid vaginal tablets can be used in patients with atrophic vaginitis who do not want to or can not take local estrogen treatment.”
“The effect of the degree of hydrolysis

of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) substrates on the preparation and properties SB273005 datasheet of crosslinked membranes prepared via esterification with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) has been studied using attenuated total reflectanceFourier transform spectroscopy (ATRFTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three PVA substrates with degrees of hydrolysis of 89, 96, and 99% were crosslinked using SSA at high temperatures. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that esterification occurred in all the membranes and to some extent, prior to heat treatment. The final morphology of the membranes was dependent buy Vorinostat on both the SSA concentration and the composition of the PVA substrate. Thermogravimetric analysis showed an increase in the thermal stability of the PVA-SSA membranes with respect to their PVA

substrates arising from the formation of a crosslinked structure. In addition, TGA revealed the presence of free and tightly bound water in the PVA-SSA membranes. Thermal treatment had a more pronounced effect on the properties of the PVA substrates having higher degrees of hydrolysis. The results from the swelling tests, the ionic exchange capacities (IEC) and the tests in DMFC monocells demonstrated that a balance between water and methanol selectivity and ionic conduction determines the potential of these materials to act as electrolytes in fuel cells. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis are essential for the alternating life cycle of flowering plants between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte generations. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the world’s major staple food, and manipulation of pollen fertility is particularly important for the demands to increase rice grain yield.

HIV+ participants demonstrated more difficulties

in learn

HIV+ participants demonstrated more difficulties

in learning the gambling task than did HIV- participants. Executive functioning and depression emerged as strong predictors of gambling task performance. Depression partially mediated the relationship between executive functioning and gambling performance. Our findings suggest that HIV infection, executive dysfunction, and depression place individuals at risk for poor decision-making. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:340-348)”
“Intrinsic surface tension of nanoscale ferroelectric thin film tends to induce tensile stress in its surface layer, whereas the other portion of the film is subjected to compression to maintain mechanical balance. A continuum-based phase-field model accounting for such surface effect has been set up to investigate GW2580 molecular weight the evolution of domain structure and thickness-dependent HM781-36B research buy ferroelectric properties of free-standing BaTiO3 nano-thin films. It was observed that both remnant polarization and coercive

field decrease with a decrease of film thickness and increase of surface tension, and that, for film thickness ranging from 10-20 nm, both properties decreased sharply at the surface strain 2-3 epsilon(0) (epsilon(0) being the spontaneous strain). Further decrease in film thickness or increase in surface tension could result in loss of ferroelectricity. Such a critical state for the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition has also been established for the range of film thickness 4-20 nm. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3652906]“
“Hard-wired, Pavlovian, responses elicited MX69 cell line by predictions of rewards and punishments exert significant benevolent and malevolent influences over instrumentally-appropriate actions. These influences come in two main groups, defined along anatomical, pharmacological, behavioural and functional lines. Investigations of the influences have so far concentrated on the groups as a whole; here we take the critical step of looking inside each group, using a detailed reinforcement

learning model to distinguish effects to do with value, specific actions, and general activation or inhibition. We show a high degree of sophistication in Pavlovian influences, with appetitive Pavlovian stimuli specifically promoting approach and inhibiting withdrawal, and aversive Pavlovian stimuli promoting withdrawal and inhibiting approach. These influences account for differences in the instrumental performance of approach and withdrawal behaviours. Finally, although losses are as informative as gains, we find that subjects neglect losses in their instrumental learning. Our findings argue for a view of the Pavlovian system as a constraint or prior, facilitating learning by alleviating computational costs that come with increased flexibility.

Perforation was reported to occur in fewer than 5% of gastric can

Perforation was reported to occur in fewer than 5% of gastric cancer patients. Preoperative diagnosis of a gastric cancer was rated and occurred in 14-57% of patients in the papers reviewed. Mortality rates for emergency gastrectomy ranged from 0 to 50% and for simple closure procedures the rates ranged from 8 to 100%. Patients able to receive an R0 gastrectomy demonstrated better long-term survival (median 75 months, 50% 5-year) compared with patients who had simple closure procedures.

Conclusions Gastric cancer patients presenting with a gastric perforation demonstrate improved overall survival with an R0 resection; however, implementation of this management technique is complicated

URMC-099 in vitro by infrequent preoperative gastric cancer diagnosis, and inability to perform an oncologic resection due to patient instability and intra-abdominal contamination.”
“A female congenic rat produced by repeated backcrossing of

Nihon rats, a model for hereditary renal cell carcinoma, to Brown Norway rats was necropsied at 24 months of age. At necropsy, a white mass about 1 centimeter in size was observed in the thoracic cavity, and the mass partly adhered to the esophagus and the diaphragm. Histologically, the mass was clearly circumscribed by connective Selleckchem Epacadostat tissue, and consisted of neoplastic cuboidal epithelial cells that showed cystic tubular proliferation. Some islands of well-differentiated hepatocytes and some vessels were observed in the mass. Immunohistochemically,

the tumor cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin and partly positive for vimentin but were negative for mesothelin and Von Willebrand Factor. The positive rate for Ki-67 was 2.4%. Based on these histological and immunohistochemical evidences, we diagnosed Pevonedistat research buy this tumor as a cystic cholangioma that might have arisen from the ectopic hepatic tissue in the thoracic cavity. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.25.41; J Toxicol Pathol 2012; 25: 41-44)”
“In this study, we carried out sodium hydroxide and sonication pretreatments of rapeseed straw (Brassica napus) to obtain monosugar suitable for production of biofuels. To optimize the pretreatment conditions, we applied a statistical response-surface methodology. The optimal pretreatment conditions using sodium hydroxide under sonication irradiation were determined to be 75.0 A degrees C, 7.0 % sodium hydroxide, and 6.8 h. For these conditions, we predicted 97.3 % enzymatic digestibility. In repeated experiments to validate the predicted value, 98.9 +/- A 0.3 % enzymatic digestibility was obtained, which was well within the range of the predicted model. Moreover, sonication irradiation was found to have a good effect on pretreatment in the lower temperature range and at all concentrations of sodium hydroxide. According to scanning electron microscopy images, the surface area and pore size of the pretreated rapeseed straw were modified by the sodium hydroxide pretreatment under sonication irradiation.

The first factor included items 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 of the GHQ-1

The first factor included items 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 of the GHQ-12; the second, items 3, 10, and 11; and P005091 inhibitor the third, items 4, 8, and 12. The three factors together explained 53.7% of the variance. The model with the best fit in the CFA was the three-dimensional model proposed by Graetz, followed by the three-dimensional model derived from the EFA. These two models had acceptable goodness-of-fit indices.

Conclusions In an adolescent population from Southern Europe, the GHQ-12 showed high internal consistency. The factor structure that best fitted the data was the Graetz three-dimensional model. However, the high correlations observed between factors suggest that

the GHQ-12 should be used as a unidimensional scale, as currently done.”
“Thermally conductive composites are needed for a variety of applications, especially as thermal interface materials. Unfortunately, the addition of even highly conductive

particles to a polymer raises its conductivity only slightly and incurs a commensurate increase in the viscosity of the prepolymer resin. Meaningful increases in the thermal conductivity of the final composite require a filled resin that has the rheology of a typical paste. In this check details paper, we report on the use of uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial ac magnetic fields to organize thermally conductive magnetic particles into structures that conduct LY3039478 in vitro heat more efficiently. Experimental results are compared to an extension of the Maxwell-Eucken theory that takes into account spatial correlations between particles. Both theory and experiment show that the thermal conductivity of field-structured composites increases essentially linearly with particle loading, and that the enhancement is significantly greater than that of unstructured composites. The measured conductivity enhancements are found to be comparable to the enhancements in magnetic permeability of these

composites and are far less than the enhancements in the electrical conductivity. These results indicate the value of field structuring in enhancing the performance of a thermal interface material and show that particle percolation is not a critical factor in achieving high performance. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3245322]“
“Novel self-supported natural and synthetic polymer membranes of chitosan-hydroxy ethyl Cellulose-montmorillonite (CS-HEC-MMT) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) are prepared by solution casting method followed by crosslinking. These membranes are employed for air humidification at varying temperatures between 30 degrees C and 70 degrees C and their performances are compared with commercial Nafion membranes. High hater fluxes with desired humidified-air output have been achieved for CS-HEC-MMT and PVA-PSSA hybrid membranes at air-flow rates of 1-10 slpm.

It was implanted on the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid

It was implanted on the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid bone and was accompanied with mandibular duplication. Magnetic resonance imaging detected duplication of the pituitary gland and confirmed the absence of intracranial communication of the nasopharyngeal mass. The teratoma did not cause respiratory obstruction; however, the patient required continuous nasogastric

tube feeding. Usually, an epignathus teratoma is associated with few midline defects and can be corrected with multiple interventions at different time points. The current study describes the surgical procedure comprising excision of the tumor along with reconstructive surgeries of the mandible, tongue, and fistulae undertaken when the infant reached 7 months of age. The cleft palate was repaired at 18 months of age using the Kaplan buccal flap method. Histopathologic examination

confirmed a grade 0 teratoma covered with keratinized skin and containing this website pilosebaceous and sweat glands, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle. The long-term success of this intervention was determined at the follow-up examination conducted at 3 years of age, with no signs of the teratoma recurrence observed.”
“Purpose: To assess the necessity of placing a ureteral stent after transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (TPLU).

Patients and Methods: In the period from May 2006 to November 2010, 46 patients underwent TPLU. There were 13 females and 33 males. All patients had an impacted stone larger than 1.5 cm in the upper and middle parts of the ureter. TPLU was performed as either a primary therapy or as a salvage therapy in patients in whom another treatment BLZ945 cell line had failed. The exclusion criteria were pregnancy, a body mass index more than 35, and patients click here with abnormal results on coagulative tests. In all cases, after removing the stone, the ureter was sutured. In the first 23 patients, no ureteral catheter was placed, but in the second

23 patients, a Double J catheter was inserted through the ureter.

Results: In one case, the stone was pushed back. The stone-free rate was 97.8%. There were four cases of prolonged urinary leakage after the surgery. All of them were in the group in whose members the Double J catheter had not been placed. The problem was resolved in one patient spontaneously after 4 days, but for the other three patients, a Double J catheter was placed and the leakage was stopped in 24 hours. There was no case of urinary leakage in the second group of patients with a placed Double J catheter.

Conclusion: Placing a Double J catheter during surgery does not increase the time of operation and may play a role in prevention of urinary extravasation after laparoscopic ureterolithotomy.”
“The three-component condensation of 1,2-diamino-4-phenylimidazole with aromatic aldehydes and 1,3-cyclohexanediones occurred regioselectively and afforded 3-amino-1-phenyl-10-aryl-7,8-dihydroimidazo[1,5-b] cinnolin-9(5H,6H,10H)-ones.