Due to these efforts and the costs of the analyses, serial sampling is feasible in an experimental setting, but not for measurements on a routine basis. The present study focuses on the feasibility of an innovative, noninvasive spectroscopic technique that allows in vivo measurements of carotenoids in the skin by reflection spectroscopy. To this end, in a first trial, repeated measurements of the carotenoid
concentration of the udder skin were performed on 25 healthy cattle from different breeds. Carotenoid concentrations showed Ispinesib in vivo highly significant differences between individual animals (P < 0.001), although they were kept under the same environmental conditions and received the same diet. The carotenoid concentrations in “sensitive” and “robust” cows (evaluated by a temperament test) differed significantly (P < 0.005), with higher concentrations observed in robust cows. (C) 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.10.101514]“
“Background: The only published US study,
on racial/ethnic disparities in inpatient asthma management was performed in 1989-1990 at a single center. The authors reported that black and Hispanic children were provided substandard care at hospital discharge compared to white children. The purpose of the present analysis was to reexamine this important issue in a large multicenter study.\n\nMethods: Wnt assay A cohort study of 1,232 children and adults hospitalized with a physician diagnosis of acute asthma at 30 hospitals in 22 US states was used.\n\nResults: The cohort included 562 children (age range, 2 to 17 years; 39% white; 42% black; and 19% Hispanic) and 670 adults (age range, 18 to 54 years; 44% white; 44% black; and 12% Hispanic). There were no significant
racial/ethnic differences in the choice of inpatient medications or length of stay among either children or adults. At hospital discharge, Hispanic children were less likely to receive an asthma action plan (37%) compared to white children (60%) or black children (63%; p < 0.001). Multivariate adjustment for eight variables (including socioeconomic status, hospital admissions for asthma in the past year, medication use prior to presentation, physical examination findings, selleck chemical and hospital admission location) attenuated the statistical significance of this association (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.1 to 2.5).\n\nConclusions: We did not identify racial/ethnic disparities in the inpatient treatment and outcomes for children or adults with acute asthma. At hospital discharge, Hispanic children were less likely to receive an asthma action plan compared to white or black children, possibly due to language or socioeconomic differences. (CHEST 2009; 135:1527-1534)”
“Background: Pooling is a cost effective way to collect data for genetic association studies, particularly for rare genetic variants.