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alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucleic Acids Res 1988,16(22):10881–10890.PubMedCrossRef RG7420 chemical structure 48. Letunic I, Doerks T, Bork P: SMART 7: recent updates to the protein domain annotation resource. Nucleic Acids Res 2012,40(Database issue):D302-D305.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contribution CK, RFL and SLG planned the experiments; CK, RFL and GMA conducted the experiments; CK and RFL analyzed as well as interpreted the data. CK, RFL and SLG prepared the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final Rolziracetam manuscript.”
“Background Oral infections, such
as caries and periodontal disease, are among the most common instances of bacterial pathogenesis in humans. Current models of oral disease development center around the microbial communities found in dental plaque biofilms. Development of the dental plaque biofilm involves competition and cooperation among hundreds of different organisms. Early colonizing organisms, dominated by streptococci such as S. gordonii, bind to a variety of host derived molecules coating oral surfaces known as the acquired pellicle. Secondary colonizing species then adhere to those bound to the pellicle. Fusobacterium nucleatum can bind these early colonizing organisms and later additions to the biofilm . In addition, F. nucleatum is aerotolerant and metabolic activity can reduce the concentration of oxygen to levels that can be tolerated by more pathogenic organisms such as P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis can bind to both F. nucleatum and S. gordonii[4, 5], and these organisms are metabolically compatible when associated [3, 6]. While destruction of periodontal tissue is generally associated with later colonizers like P.