In the central area of tumor, GBC-SD xenografts Epacadostat nmr exhibited VM in the absence of ECs, central necrosis, and fibrosis (Figure 3a3).
Furthermore, the MVD of Citarinostat manufacturer marginal area of tumor xenografts between GBC-SD and SGC-996 was compared. The MVD of GBC-SD xenografts (n = 7) was higher than the GBC-SD xenografts (n = 5, 13.514 ± 2.8328 vs. 11.68 ± 2.4617, t = 2.61, P = 0.0115) (Figure 3a2 b2). For GBC-SD xenografts, TEM clearly showed single, double, and several red blood cells existed in the central of tumor nests. There was no vascular structure between the surrounding tumor cells and erythrocytes. Neither necrosis nor fibrosis was observed in the tumor nests (Figure 3a5). In contrast, the necrosis in GBC-SD xenografts specimens could be clearly found (Figure 3b5). These finding demonstrated that VM existed in GBC-SD xenografts and assumed the same morphology and structure characteristic as VM existed in human primary gallbladder carcinomas reported by us . Hemodynamic of VM and angiogenesis in GBC-SD and SGC-996 xenografts in vivo Two-mm-interval horizontal scanning of two different gallbladder carcinoma xenografts (GBC-SD and SGC-996)
were conducted to compare tumor signal intensities between mice by dynamic Micro-MRA with an intravascular macromolecular MRI contrast agent named HAS-Gd-DTPA. As shown in Figure 4, the tumor marginal area of GBC-SD and SGC-996 xenografts exhibited gradually a high-intensity signal that completely surrounded the xenografted tumor, a finding consistent with angiogenesis. Emricasan In the tumor
center, GBC-SD xenografts exhibited multiple high-intensity spots (which is consistent with the intensity observed at tumor marginal), a result consistent with pathological VM. However, SGC-996 xenografts exhibited a low intensity signal or a lack of signal, a result consistent with central PRKD3 necrosis and disappearance of nuclei. Examination of the hemodynamic of VM revealed blood flow with two peaks of intensity and a statistically significant time lag relative to the hemodynamic of angiogenesis. Figure 4 Dynamic micro-MRA of the xenografts ( a 1-6 ) and hemodynamic of VM and angiogenesis in GBC-SD and SGC-996 xenografts ( b 1-6 ) in vivo. (A) The images were acquired before the injection of the contrast agents (HAS-Gd-DTPA, pre), 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min after injection. The tumor marginal area (red circle) of both GBC-SD and SGC-996 exhibited a signal that gradually increased in intensity. In the tumor center (yellow circle), GBC-SD exhibited spots in which the signal gradually increased in intensity (consistent with the intensity recorded for the tumor margin). However, the central region of SGC-996 maintained a lack of signal. (B) Hemodynamic of VM and angiogenesis in GBC-SD and SGC-996 nude mouse xenografts. All data are expressed as means ± SD.