Secure GFP WIPI UOS cells had been contaminated with S. aureus USA in DMEM FCS and fixed in glutaraldehyde and . osmium tetroxide in .M PBS, dehydrated with ethanol, and embedded in Epon making use of regular procedures as previously described . Thin sections have been minimize employing an ultramicrotome and contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Thin sections have been examined in an EM electron microscope and documented digitally . Statistical Examination. Statistical significance was evaluated using two tailed heteroscedastic t testing and P values have been calculated Final results Visualizing Basal and Induced Autophagy by Automated GFP WIPI Picture Acquisition and Evaluation. The WIPI puncta formation assay makes it possible for the evaluation of the evolutionarily conserved, PtdIns P dependent initiation of autophagy around the basis of fluorescence microscopy, previously employed by utilizing confocal microscopy or automated picture acquisition and analysis .
Thereby, endogenous WIPI is often visualized by indirect immunofluorescence or alternatively selleckchem Panobinostat molecular weight by introducing GFP WIPI as performed while in the current review. Fluorescent WIPI puncta reflect the accumulation of WIPI at membranes by way of its specific binding to PtdIns P was uncovered to represent phagophores and autophagosomes . Moreover, WIPI binds to PtdIns P with the endoplasmic reticulum and in the plasma membrane on the induction of autophagy, indicative for membrane origins wherever phagophore autophagosome formation is initiated by unknown mechanisms . Right here, we employed automated GFP WIPI image acquisition and examination as follows. Human UOS cells that stably express GFP WIPI were seeded in well plates and basal autophagy, and starvation induced autophagy was monitored in as much as personal cells per treatment with time .
After an incubation time period of . or h with nutrient rich culture medium , basal autophagic action was noticed in around with the cells and . Serum starvation elevated the amount of GFP WIPI puncta favourable cells to around and , and the two serumand amino acid starvation even more elevated this variety to somewhere around and . On top of that, we demonstrate that with regard to nutrient rich this hyperlink medium , the quantity of GFP WIPI puncta per cell also greater on serum or upon each serumand amino acid starvation . These culture media had been used in the following experiments to infect GFP WIPI expressing UOS cells with mCherry expressing Staphylococci. Formation of GFP WIPI Beneficial Autophagosome Like Vesicles on Staphylococcus aureus Infection.
Upon infection of GFP WIPI UOS cells with pathogenic Staphylococci, here S. aureus HG, in nutrient rich medium , we recognized canonical, autophagosomal GFP WIPI membranes and , and new GFP WIPI autophagosome like vesicles that had been greater in diameter with decreased fluorescence intensity when in contrast on the canonical GFP WIPI puncta.
To focus on occasions subsequent to endoderm specification, inhibitor therapy commenced at h just after fertilization, which isn’t going to seem to interfere using the onset of endodermal marker gene expression . We uncovered that treatment method with M SB considerably slowed migration velocity and greater migration persistence at early stages compared with DMSO treated manage . Nodal receptor inhibition also induced alterations in actin dynamics. Specifically, we found that SB treatment considerably enhanced lamellipodia lifetime and slowed the price of retrograde movement . Nonetheless, we didn’t detect any directional bias in lamellipodia formation , suggesting that although Nodal inhibition can market migration persistence, it very likely doesn’t provide you with advice material. Nodal signaling promotes Rac exercise in endodermal cells Our success recommend that Nodal signaling can regulate actin dynamics, but there aren’t any acknowledged cytoskeletal regulators within the Nodal signaling pathway.
To recognize selleck original site a hyperlink involving Nodal as well as actin cytoskeleton, we centered over the Rho family members GTPase Rac being a candidate. Rac has nicely characterized roles in many facets of cell migration, together with promoting actin polymerization and lamellipodia formation . The qualities of endodermal cells all through early gastrulation in particular, weak directionality and short lived, nonoriented protrusions are strikingly just like cells expressing constitutively lively kinds of Rac . In addition, expression amounts of Rac had been proven to get enough to modulate the migration persistence of fibroblasts in vitro, with substantial ranges marketing random migration and low amounts facilitating persistent migration .
Primary, we established whether or not Rac was required for early random migration by overexpressing dominant damaging Rac in Tg embryos. Injection of giant amounts of DN Rac mRNA resulted in cessation of all cell movements . On the other hand, a minimal dose of DN Rac mRNA Piroxicam only moderately inhibited endodermal migration velocity but drastically increased migration persistence at epiboly, much like what was observed with Nodal receptor inhibition . This minimal dose of DN Rac expression didn’t seem to influence expression in the endodermal marker genes sox and sox , suggesting the results on endodermal motility were not a end result of misspecification. To find out no matter whether Rac was required cell autonomously within endodermal cells to promote dynamic migration, we performed cell transplantation experiments.
Donor endodermal cells were created by overexpression of sox both alone or mixed with DN Rac.
Regularly, we identified that host macrophages engulfed alloreactive T cells in between and h of in vitro culture and, as a result, way more effectively than host DC . To examine regardless of whether host macrophages may also engulf donor T cells in vivo, we traced the fate of alloreactive T cells for the duration of the h just after their injection in lethally irradiated recipient mice. Alloreactive T cells accumulated close to the spleen marginal zone shortly after adoptive transfer and steadily shifted toward the T cell area . A substantial amount of donor T cells had been trapped in the red pulp in close contact with host macrophages at early time points after their transfer . Steady with effects obtained in cultures, CFSE labeled donor T cells have been engulfed by splenic macrophages in the course of the 1st day of transplant and ahead of the initiation of donor T cell proliferation in vivo .
Strikingly, h just after allo HCT, the number of donor T cells accumulating in the recipient spleen and mesenteric LN have been considerably increased in mice handled with anti CSF R mAb compared with the management groups, whereas mAb therapy did not have an impact on the numbers of donor B cell within the spleen . Altogether, these final results suggest that host macrophages limit the growth of donor tgf beta receptor inhibitors T cells partly by way of their ability to engulf donor allogeneic T cells. Mainly because substantial CD expression protects cells from being captured by macrophages, we in contrast CD expression levels on naive T and B lymphocytes isolated from spleen.
We uncovered that CD was expressed at decrease ranges on donor T cells compared with B cells but i was reading this was up regulated on proliferating T cells stimulated with anti CD? mAb or allogeneic DC . To examine whether CD plays a purpose in donor T cell homeostasis following allo HCT, we coinjected T cells isolated from CD and CD? ? mice into lethally irradiated allogeneic recipients. Human CSF has been proven to expand macrophages in mice . To examine no matter if pretransplant CSF administration may very well be applied to enhance GVHD just after allo HCT, recipient CBL mice were injected each day for d with large dose human CSF in advance of lethal irradiation and allo HCT. CSF injections appreciably greater the amount of host spleen macrophages that persisted immediately after lethal irradiation . Strikingly, CSF injections also reduced the growth of donor alloreactive T cells during the spleen, LN, and liver plus the differentiation of IFN ? generating effector cells but did not alter the induction of donor Foxp regulatory T cells .
Importantly, pretransplant CSF therapy considerably improved the clinical GVHD score and survival of recipient mice injected with or splenocytes . Constantly, the loss of CD CD double favourable T cells in the thymus, a surrogate marker of thymic GVHD , was drastically enhanced by CSF administration .
The animals have been housed individually in regular laboratory cages with totally free accessibility to traditional meals and tap water ad libitum. The experimental protocols were established, according to the suggestions of NIH Animal Exploration Care and were authorized by the Animal Analysis Care Committee of Guangxi Health care University. Personal rats had been exposed either to room air or to cigarette smoke, as described previously . Briefly, groups of rats had been exposed to tobacco smoke with 20 cigarettes within a closed 0.54m3 area for 2 hours every day for six consecutive days per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Therefore, an optimum ratio of smoking to air at 1 : six was obtained as well as amounts of oxygen exposed by the rats were kept at a 21 1 , which can be very similar to atmospheric oxygen concentrations. The rats tolerated the cigarette smoke without the need of evidence of toxicity . The levels of serum carboxyhemoglobin in the smoking rats had been 8.3 1.4 , as compared with 1.0 0.
2 from the management rats , which were equivalent on the concentrations of blood carboxyhemoglobin of human smokers . Three weeks soon after exposure to cigarette smoke, the rats have been randomized and treated by gavage with one hundred mg kg d of erythromycin in saline or saline alone daily for nine weeks, respectively. We utilized this dose selleck chemical special info depending on our prior findings to present that therapy with one hundred mg kg d of erythromycin inhibits smoke relevant lung irritation not having obvious adverse impact . The rats that exposed to common air had been randomized and taken care of with erythromycin or saline within the same method. Accordingly, there have been four groups of rats . The typical group of rats have been exposed to usual air and taken care of with saline ; the smoking group of rats had been exposed to smoking air for 12 weeks and treated with saline ; the erythromycin group of rats were exposed to smoking air for 12 weeks and treated with erythromycin ; the control group of rats had been exposed to frequent air and treated with erythromycin .
One day after the last smoking, animals were injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg kg pentobarbital and subjected to a thoracotomy. Their left lungs had been lavaged via an intratracheal cannula 3 instances with 2mL of cold saline, as well as the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. The left lungs had been utilised for the preparation of single cell suspension. The reduced lobes of their Hematoxylin proper lungs had been fixed in 10 formalin for pathological examination Histology. The fixed lower lobes with the perfect lungs were embedded in paraffin, along with the midsagittal sections within the lungs had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin , followed by examining under a light microscope.
Three nonconsecutive lung sections from each and every animal and three nonoverlapping random fields from every section had been examined for your quantification of lung damages.
To handle these queries, we evaluated the distinctions amongst modulation of gene expression by WY 14,643 in p47phox and Ppar? null mice, two mouse engineered versions that were used previously to elucidate receptor dependent and independent pathways. This review supplies an intensive time program and dose response of peroxisome proliferator induced gene expression modifications in mouse liver during the context of two very important modes of action of these compounds: activation of PPAR? and Kupffer cells. Gene expression information presented right here clearly demonstrate that Kupffer cell mediated molecular improvements in mouse liver evoked by WY 14,643 are transient and short lived, and therefore are not observed with steady treatment. Basal differences in liver gene expression amongst wild type and p47phox null mice 1st, gene expression in control fed wild variety and p47phox null mice was in contrast. A two class comparison making use of Significance Examination of Microarrays identified 2257 genes as differentially expressed concerning the strains across all time points .
Immune response, fatty acid metabolic process , glucose metabolism and amino acid metabolism were identified because the biological processes that had been differentially expressed concerning selleck chemicals read what he said wild kind and p47phox null mice. Divergent expression of genes associated with innate immunity was expected offered the major purpose that Kupffer cell NADPH oxidase plays inside the liver?s defense response . A variety of lipid mediators of inflammation exhibited greater basal ranges of expression in p47phox null mice. These comprise of phosopholipase A2 , which plays a part in arachidonic acid release and eiconsanoid biosynthesis, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 1 , also known as cyclooxygenase 1 , lipoprotein lipase , and NADPH dependent enzyme leukotriene B4 dehydrogenase .
p47phox null mice also exhibited elevated levels of Toll like receptor 4 , and that is a well known mediator of lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation. Complement 3 and fibronectin one , which the two market phagocytosis, were also suppressed in p47phox null mice. Interestingly, striking differences in basal gene expression for fatty selleckchem Y-27632 ic50 acid metabolic process genes, a big number of that are PPAR regulated was also observed amongst wild kind and p47phox null mice . Several research have drawn a link between NADPH oxidase and lipid metabolism by way of reactive oxygen species related low density lipoprotein oxidation . The oxidized LDL metabolites are PPAR ligands and will encourage transcription of PPAR target genes.
Depending on this proposed mechanism of cross speak concerning PPAR and liver macrophages, basal ranges of PPAR lively molecules inside the liver could possibly be lower in NADPH oxidase deficient mice in comparison with wild kinds, in line with the observations from this study in the reduce basal mRNA amounts of PPAR target genes in p47phox null animals.
Pre treating the esophageal fibroblasts with rising concentrations of SB505124 efficiently blocked the TGF induced increases in smooth muscle expression in the esophageal fibroblasts . Maximal inhibition of your TGF induced fibroblast activation was witnessed at one M SB505124 and this concentration was picked for all subsequent experiments. Treatment method in the cells with SB505124 also blocked smooth muscle actin induction and SMAD2 activation following treatment with ESCC conditioned media . To investigate whether or not TGF inhibition was growth inhibitory on any from the cell sorts implemented during the neoangiogenesis assay, endothelial cells , fibroblasts and 3 ESCC lines were handled with improving concentrations of every of two structurally distinct small molecule inhibitors of TGF for 72 hrs. Measuring ranges of proliferation using the MTT assay revealed that neither TGF inhibitor impacted the development of any on the cell types tested .
The TGF inhibitors SB505124 and GW788388 inhibit ESCC induced vascular network formation We next investigated regardless if inhibition of fibroblast activation blocked ESCC induced vascular network formation. Co culture of fibroblasts with the HMVECs led to endothelial HIF-1 inhibitor cell migration but rather minor differentiated vascular network formation . Treatment method in the fibroblast HMVEC co cultures together with the TGF inhibitor GW788388 didn’t appreciably alter the level of vascular network organization , demonstrating that there was only limited fibroblast activation during the absence of ESCCs. As prior to, addition within the ESCC lines TE1 and TE8 for the fibroblast HMVEC co culture significantly increased the degree of vascular network organization . In contrast, therapy of the ESCC fibroblast HMVEC co cultures with both SB505124 or GW788388 led to a total reversal of vascular network formation .
These final results demonstrate that inhibition of fibroblast activation by small molecule TGF inhibitors blocks ESCCinduced neoangiogenesis . Pharmacological Docetaxel inhibition of TGF inhibits VEGF secretion from the two esophageal fibroblasts and ESCC VEGF is amongst the most potent inducers of angiogenesis. To investigate the possible part of paracrine VEGF release from eosophageal fibroblasts in ESCC induced neoangiogenesis, we examined VEGF release from co cultured and TGF stimulated esophageal fibroblasts using an ELISA. Unstimulated esophageal fibroblasts make a basal level of VEGF underneath 2D cell culture ailments and this was considerably increased when the fibroblasts have been grown below 3D circumstances .
Remedy of the fibroblasts with all the TGF inhibitor SB505124 didn’t lower basal amounts of VEGF underneath 2D cell culture circumstances , on the other hand it did inhibit basal VEGF release once the fibroblasts have been grown underneath 3D cell culture disorders .
Caspase inhibition is effective in minimizing nucleosome accumulation in key cortical cultures stimulated by TNF and thrombin. In contrast, the exact same effect is simply not observed in differentiated PC12 cells. In PC12 cells TNF induced LDH release is decreased by caspase inhibition. For the reason that TNF remedy induces both LDH release and nucleosome accumulation in PC12 cells, caspase inhibition could possibly enrich cell survival below disorders that induce a mixed apoptotic necrotic response. Pytlowany and colleagues demonstrate that In PC12 cells NO released from SNP decreases cell viability inside a time and concentration dependent method, with a increased concentration of NO leading to immediate and sustained lower in cell survival with no evoking a corresponding immediate activation of caspase three . In the recent review we locate that NO created by 0.5 mM SNP activates caspase three inside a longer time frame .
Similarly, despite the fact that treatment of neuronal cultures with PACAP improves survival to each thrombin and SNP the biochemical response just isn’t identical. For instance, PACAP is additional useful at restoring p57KIP2 expression in thrombin treated in comparison with NO exposed cells. Our outcomes recommend that PACAP from this source protects neurons from cell death as a result of a variety of mechanisms and that its protective effects are evident even when administered post anxiety . It’s been proven that cell cycle proteins in apoptotic neurons can activate professional apoptotic protein expression, which leads to completion in the apoptotic method. Nonetheless, no matter whether there exists a regulation of professional survival mediators such as Bcl two on this operation isn’t clear. Apoptosis depends upon the balance in between professional apoptotic and professional survival proteins remaining tipped in favor on the former.
The protective effect of PACAP has been connected with increased expression of Bcl 2 in rat cerebellar granule cells and also other members on the Bcl family in cardiomyocytes . Within this review, selleck chemicals full article we sought to find out no matter whether the protective impact of PACAP38 proceeded by means of restoring this balance by expanding expression of Bcl 2, a professional survival mediator. The protective effect of PACAP38 to the regulation of Bcl 2 expression can also be agonist variable. Untreated neuronal cultures express a basal level with the anti apoptotic protein Bcl 2 that is definitely decreased by publicity to both SNP or thrombin. The SNP induced reduction of Bcl two is reversible by PACAP38 whereas thrombininduced reduction of Bcl 2 is unaffected by PACAP38.
The restoration of Bcl 2 by PACAP38 in SNP handled neurons whereas not in thrombin handled neurons demonstrates that one can find a minimum of two mechanisms involved in altering the apoptosis survival stability mediated by PACAP38. We now have earlier shown that in thrombin mediated neuronal apoptosis, there is certainly an upregulation of professional apoptotic protein Bim . Therefore a lessen in Bcl 2 may possibly not be needed for favoring apoptosis, as an increase in Bim would naturally do so.
The authors suggested that serum tamoxifen concentrations had been too minimal to inhibit P gp in vivo . Numerous research investigated the purpose of P gp in CNS distribution of antitetroviral medication in people by assuming that CSF can be a biomarker of drug concentrations during the brain ISF . As pointed out in Part , this assumption is fraught with issues. Khaliq et al assessed the impact of ketoconazole on CSF concentrations of ritonavir or saquinavir in patients contaminated with HIV. Ketoconazole greater ritonavir CSF to plasma unbound concentration ratio by fold . The increase in saquinvir CSF to plasma unbound ratio was insignificant, possibly on account of small topic numbers and high interindividual variability in remedy impact. The authors suggested that inhibition of efflux transporters may be made use of to improve treatment of HIV within the CNS.
Similarly, van Praag et al. added ritonavir to sufferers taken care of with zidovudine or stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, nevirapine or indinavir. Median serum trough concentrations of indinavir greater five.two fold, but serum peak concentrations remained unchanged inside the presence of ritonavir, indicating MK 0822 ic50 decreased elimination half existence of indinavir because of this of inhibition of its systemic clearance by ritonavir. The median indinavir CSF concentration elevated from 39 ng ml to 104 ng ml. As a result, when normalized by peak plasma concentration, but not by trough concentrations, ritonavir improved fold the CSF to plasma ratio of indinavir. These effects illustrate the significance of review layout when interpreting DDIs in the degree of CNS concentrations .
Below steadystate conditions or when comprehensive AUC profiles are characterized, alterations in systemic drug Icariin concentrations ought to not influence the CSF to plasma or brain to plasma concentration of your drug and therefore should not confound interpretation of this kind of information. To overcome problems linked with drawing single CSF samples, Haas et al. obtained serial CSF and plasma samples from HIV infected individuals for evaluation of CSF to plasma AUC ratio. This review demonstrated that the key mechanism for ritonavir indinavir interaction was elevated plasma concentrations of indinavir resulting from hepatic CYP3A inhibition by ritonavir. The transporter concept in refractory epilepsy led to the evaluation of P gp inhibitors as include on therapies to antiepileptic medicines for that treatment of intractable epilepsy.
Two situation reports describe reversal of drug resistance in sufferers with refractory epilepsy treated with several anticonvulsants by verapamil . Subsequent trials in patients with drug resistant epilepsy substantiated the impact of mixed treatment with antiepileptic drugs and verapamil . Nevertheless, the impact of verapamil in these sufferers may very well be mediated by mechanisms apart from P gp inhibition.
As talked about beneath, most of these channel regulators are produced in response to inflammatory situations or due to tissue damage. Hence, channel activation could come about at regular physiological temperatures under selected cellular circumstances, this kind of as irritation and ischemia, top to soreness. might be demanding at the existing stage because 14 3 3l regulates many critical proteins which can be critical for homeostasis. Identification from the TGF Smads pathway like a downstream occasion of 14 three 3l overexpression in marketing invasion represents an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. At present, the TGF Smads pathway is underneath intensive investigation like a therapeutic target . Provided the dichotomous role of the TGF Smads pathway in tumor advancement, it is actually crucial to dissect the TGF Smads downstream signals and their crosstalk with other signaling networks, this kind of as ErbB2 signaling, so that you can exclusively activate its tumor suppressing position or particularly inhibit its tumor marketing part.
Our findings recommend the prospective therapeutic benefit of inhibiting the TGF Smads pathway in the context of ErbB2 and 14 3 3l co overexpressing breast cancers. Twenty 5 DCIS and 107 invasive breast cancer specimens were obtained from the Cancer Hospital, FuDan University . Further GSK2636771 cost 138 DCIS had been collected on the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center . Patient samples had been collected and processed in compliance with protocols accredited by the MDACC Institutional Review Board and through the Cancer Hospital Cancer Institute, FuDan University Institutional Assessment Board. Comprehensive clinic pathological knowledge of these individuals cohort is offered in Table S4 six.
Cells, constructs, antibodies, and reagents The MCF10A cell line was a type present from Dr. Robert Pauley and was cultured in 3D culture as previously selleckchem TAK-700 clinical trial described . The HMEC hTERT cell line was kindly provided by Dr. Victoria Seewaldt . ErbB2, HA 14 3 3l, and E cadherin genes had been cloned into pLPCX, pLNCX2, and pLHCX vectors , respectively. Retroviral infection was finished as previously described . Secure clones had been picked with 400 g ml neomycin, 800 ng ml puromycin, and one hundred g ml hygromycin, respectively. Many different stable clones have been employed to rule out prospective clonal effects. HA 14 three 3l was also cloned into pRV3 and pLOVE lentiviral vectors. Lentivirus production and infection, and reagents and antibodies put to use, are described in Supplemental Procedures.
TRP ion channels had been to begin with described in 1989 in Drosophila melanogaster . Then again, it had been not until 1997 when TRPV1, certainly one of the members with the relatives of TRP channels, was cloned and proven to respond to various stimuli such as capsaicin , compound , the main pungent ingredient of sizzling chilli peppers, to minimal pH and large temperatures .
The identity within the reduced metabolite was confirmed by comparing its HPLC retention time and mass spectral data with individuals of the synthetic typical . Around the basis of the UV adsorption at 250 nm, around one.8 of FLU six was formed in human liver micorsomes, along with the total turnover of FLU was calculated as 65 . The outcomes provide direct evidence that FLU undergoes nitroreductive metabolism to form FLU six not merely in vivo but in addition in vitro. Characterization of GSH Adducts of FLU and CYA For your LC MS MS examination of GSH adducts, samples created from incubations with human liver microsomes were desalted and concentrated by SPEs, and resulting samples were subjected to the the two PI EPI experiments and data dependent scanning.
MS detection of your PI EPI experiments was carried out working with the unfavorable PI scanning of m z 272, corresponding selleck chemicals Orteronel to deprotonated ? glutamyl dehydroalanyl glycine, originating through the glutathionyl moiety. MS MS spectra have been acquired in optimistic ion mode by using information dependent data acquisition . As shown in Inhibitor 2A, a complete of seven serious elements were detected within a human liver microsomal incubation of FLU, and so they were arbitrarily designated as FLUG1 , FLU G2 , FLU G3 , FLU G4 , FLU G5 , FLU G6 , and FLU G7 , respectively. In contrast, a complete of four parts have been detected inside a human liver microsomal incubation of CYA , plus they were designated as CYA G1 , CYA G2 , CYA G3 , and CYA G4 accordingly. None of these peaks was detected when either FLU, CYA, or NADPH was absent in the incubations.
Structures of those detected components had been identified depending on constructive MS MS spectra acquired from Qtrap and information dependent MS scanning obtained from an ion Zoledronic Acid trap instrument. The predominant adduct FLU G1 displayed a molecular ion of m z 598, suggesting that this component was a GSH conjugate of mono oxygenated FLU. Fragmentation of FLUG1 molecular ions resulted in neutral reduction of 129 and 75, corresponding to elimination in the pyroglutamate and glycine of GSH, respectively . The ion at m z 323 was formed through cleavage of sulfur carbon bond of the glutathionyl moiety. Even further fragmentation on the ion at m z 323 afforded various fragment ions such as ions at m z 207 and 187 . These information advised that FLU G1 is known as a GSH adduct with attachment with the glutathionyl moiety towards the isobutyramide as an alternative to the aromatic group previously identified depending on damaging MS spectra and NMR examination .
This was confirmed by the unfavorable MS MS spectrum of FLU G1 , which was in essence identical to the negative MS spectra reported previously . In parallel, the predominant adduct CYAG1 of CYA showed an ion at m z 578, with item ions at m z 503, 449, 432, and 303 .