As stem cells come to center stage as likely tools for novel appr

As stem cells come to center stage as likely tools for novel approaches to medicine, governments and the private sector alike demand short-term return of their investment in R&D in the guise of marketable products. In a financial rather than industrial business model, the approach itself, or the hope itself (rather than a tangible object such as an effective therapy) selleck products become the marketed commodity [97]. The marketing of immature approaches to therapies [[98] and [85]] then generates societal, medical and scientific issues. The societal issues are exemplified by the frequent use of “MSCs” in the despicable “stem cell tourism” around the world [99], and by the push to legalize their marketing ahead of any proof of efficacy

[100]; medical issues, by the resurgence, particularly among some academic physicians, of a prescientific empirical approach to medicine, which had taken centuries to overcome [101]. At this time, almost 400 underpowered clinical trials around the World, mostly in the East and

the Caribbean, use intravenous MSCs in patients with severe diseases that are not only without a cure, but also without a chance of being cured by intravenous infusions of MSCs. Scientific issues, lastly, are exemplified by the diffusion of scientifically feeble and medically ungrounded notions, which permeate a vast scientific literature and do not spare even the most prestigious venues for publication. Bone stem cells (“MSCs”) cannot cure autism or stroke as claimed. LBH589 History records major examples of how ideology (religious or political) can disseminate non-scientific misbeliefs and hold them in the face of, or against, scientific evidence. The power of rising commercial interests to do the same is a novelty of this stretch of history. At a glance, it seems to contradict the historical alliance of economic development and rigorous science as a source of technology, medical technology included. In economics, however, it is a known fact (Gresham’s law) that “bad money drives the good one out”. The history of stem cells in bone is deeply intertwined with the

history of the world over the last Cyclooxygenase (COX) 70 years. Between 1945 and 1980s, it provides the most impressive example of how the paradigm of the time, sculpting a strategic role of science and of its public funding, worked productively: bone marrow transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells, and skeletal stem cells are all the legacy of those decades, and of the post-War view of science and medicine in society. Between the 1980s and present day, a “historical” look at stem cells in bone gives a glimpse on the effects on science and science policies of changing commercial interests, which tend to replace and displace a strategic (beyond the military sense) role for science in society in peacetime. Still, the history of stem cells in bone is replenished, throughout the 70 years, with major intellectual, scientific and medical advances.

Similar positive LD signals were observed for the Zn(bpy)2 and Cd

Similar positive LD signals were observed for the Zn(bpy)2 and Cd(bpy)2 complexes at the time of mixing (Fig. S3). Therefore, the possibility of ligand intercalation between the DNA base-pairs can be rejected. With

time, the magnitude of the LD spectrum decreased gradually and the signal was almost diminished 20 min after mixing, suggesting that dsDNA became so flexible and shortened that it could not be oriented in the flow. Fig. 5 shows the decrease in LD intensity at 260 nm as a function of time. Although the LD intensity at 260 nm of the dsDNA-Cu(bpy)2 buy PR-171 adduct decreased gradually with time, reaching a zero magnitude within 20 min, that of the dsDNA-Zn(bpy)2 and dsDNA-Cd(Bpy)2 adduct remained almost constant (curves b and c), indicating that the flexibility and length of DNA are unaffected by the presence of either Zn(bpy)2 or Cd(bpy)2. This suggests that, in addition to the cleavage of scDNA probed by electrophoresis, the latter two metal complexes were unable to cleave the DNA. The decrease in LD intensity at 260 nm in the presence of the Cu(bpy)2 complex cannot be explained by simple first or second order kinetics as it was evaluated by the residuals. The residual from single component exponential decay is shown in the lower panel as an example. The sum of the two first order kinetics which corresponds to the sum of two exponential curves, LD(t)=a1exp(−t/τ1)+a2exp(−t/τ2)LDt=a1exp−t/τ1+a2exp−t/τ2were

Apoptosis inhibitor the best to elucidate the decay of the LD signal. The decay curve analysis for the dsDNA-Cu(bpy)2 adduct is shown in Fig. 5. The goodness of fit was evaluated by the residuals. As observed from the residuals (Fig. 5, low panel), the decay curve of the dsDNA-Cu(bpy)2 adduct consisted of two exponential

components, i.e., τ1 = 1.42 and τ2 = 7.16 min, the mean of the three measurements, with their relative amplitude of a1 = 0.324 and a2 = 0.676, respectively. The relevant reaction times τ1 and τ2 correspond to the rate constant of the first order reactions k1 = 0.71 min− 1 and k2 = 0.14 min− 1, respectively. As observed for scDNA, various ROS may affect the efficiency of the cleavage of dsDNA. Fig. 6 shows the effect of ROS scavengers on the decreasing profile of the LD signal of the dsDNA-Cu(bpy)2 adduct. At a glance, it is clear that the presence of tiron drastically suppresses the PD184352 (CI-1040) cleavage (curve e, Fig. 6). The catalase also had a large inhibition effect (curve d, Fig. 6). The two component curve fitting resulted in τ1 = 1.22 and τ2 = 16.66 min with their relative amplitude of a1 = 0.298 and a2 = 0.702, respectively. The two reaction time correspond to the two first order reaction constants, k1 = 0.82 min− 1 and k2 = 0.060 min− 1, respectively. Sodium azide had an intermediate inhibitory effect on dsDNA cleavage. The reaction times, τ1 = 1.45 (a1 = 0.231) and τ2 = 10.59 min (a2 = 0.769), were obtained from that fit. The inhibitory effect of DMSO was the weakest.

We are unable to determine whether providing the value


We are unable to determine whether providing the value

clarification first, as was done in Groups 2 and 3, led to improved decision quality, independent of the order effects. Third, while using Mechanical Turk as a recruitment method enabled us to enrol a fairly large sample in spite of limited study resources, the method raises some BI-6727 concerns about sample representativeness and data quality [23]. Turkers are more likely to be younger than the general population, female, and have a lower income [33]. They therefore do not reflect the characteristics of sleep apnea patients. In terms of quality, we had to exclude 5% of the sample for not reading and understanding the treatment information correctly. Otherwise, we believe our data quality reasonably reflects that of other studies [34]. Fourth, our use learn more of MCDA to ascertain the optimal option for each individual relies on certain assumptions [35]. We chose MCDA because it is a simple approach for individuals to use in deciding between options. While we assume that some treatments are suboptimal, we acknowledge that these options actually may be optimal for some individuals. Finally, we could have increased our ability to identify order effects if we had used a PtDA for a more complex

treatment decision. Over 70% of individuals were able to select the optimal option using a fixed order, which leaves limited room for improvement. Future studies should focus on decisions where individuals tend to make poor judgments. Harnessing the influence of order effects and individualizing the way health information is presented may help patients make better quality decisions. While the effects we observed are relatively small, order effects can be implemented at little cost, particularly as web/computer based PtDAs are becoming indispensable for delivering individualized risk estimates and communicating patient stories [36]. This study

contributes to a growing SB-3CT literature demonstrating that developers of static PtDAs may have unintentional but important influences on which options patients choose. This work represents one example of using behavioural design to help individuals overcome cognitive errors. Other strategies to overcome position effects have included methods to debias health information, such as through use of pictographs or incremental risk information [15]. However, these approaches typically require individuals to view even more information, making them susceptible to other biases such as information overload [37]. One promising approach for improving patient decision-making is through exploiting cognitive biases or by using so called ‘nudges’ – “aspect[s] of the choice architecture that alter people’s behaviour in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives” [5].

6 and 0 4 μg/g in mussels in Granger Bay and Green Point, respect

6 and 0.4 μg/g in mussels in Granger Bay and Green Point, respectively

(site 3), but they used different mussel species. The source of the zinc is thus uncertain and needs further investigation. Iron had the second highest concentration reported for the study period and the mean concentrations of Fe for all sites reported buy Staurosporine in this study (129.3 μg/g) is lower than that reported in other investigations where mussels were sampled (Shiber and Shatila, 1978 and Kavun et al., 2002). According to Giarratano et al. (2010), changes in marine Fe concentrations may be related to continental sources of Fe, as the major contributor to Fe is from rock weathering as a result of continental rainfall. Potential anthropogenic sources of Fe are from fertilizers, industry wastes, atmospheric deposition, solid waste disposal units and run-off from urban areas (Pergram and Görgens, 2001). The Fe tissue values recorded in the present study suggest that there are no major anthropogenic sources of Fe other than from urban GSK-3 phosphorylation run-off and the main source of Fe is postulated

to be as a result of rock weathering due to higher rainfall in autumn (Fig. 2d). According to Giarratano et al. (2010), Fe concentrations reported from their study came from natural sources, as human activities were not responsible for Fe input into the system. Cadmium concentrations (mean = 6.2 μg/g) were similar to that of Cu for the study period 1985–2008 along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula. However, the Cd levels recorded in this study are higher than the recommended SABS of 3.0 μg/g (South Africa, 1994). The values are higher than Cd values for mussels that were indicative of contamination (3.7 μg/g) set by Cantillo (1998). The levels for Cd were also higher than the 2.48 μg/g recorded by Henry et al. (1986) for Table Bay (sites 3–5). Cadmium occurs at high levels in the environment due to anthropogenic sources (Chiffoleau et al., 2001). Cadmium reactions cause various geochemical

processes such as the solubilization of Cd on freshwater particles when these reach sea water. As a result, Cd becomes available to molluscs living close to fresh water sources (Chiffoleau et al., 2001). This phenomenon could account for the higher levels of Cd at sites 2–5 as there are potential freshwater inputs such as river Carbachol mouths and stormwater pipes, although a study on metal concentrations from Diep River (freshwater input into Milnerton) showed low Cd concentrations in both water and sediment (Shuping, 2008). This cannot, however, explain the high values in site 1. The postulated reason for high Cd values at site 1 could be due to site 1 being a combination of two stations, where the mean Cd concentration in Noordhoek was 7.7 μg/g and in Olifantsbos was 6.0 μg/g. Noordhoek is a coastal area that could have substantial input of freshwater due to high levels of urbanisation.

Under aerobic conditions, microorganisms break down less chlorina

Under aerobic conditions, microorganisms break down less chlorinated

biphenyl rings to yield chlorinated benzoates and pentanoic acid derivatives (Rodrigues et al. 2006). The spatial distribution pattern of POPs in surface sediments has been widely investigated in the Arctic (e.g. Valette-Silver et al. 1999, Savinov et al. 2000, 2003, Gustaffsson et al. 2001, Strachan et al. 2001, Kuzyk et al. 2005), providing insight into linkages between sources and contamination patterns. The Barents Sea has been a focal point of investigation in the European Arctic both offshore (Yunker et al. 1996, Boitsov et al. 2009a, Dahle et al. Selleckchem PLX 4720 2009) and in adjacent coastal areas (Næs et al. 1995, Sericano et al. 2001, Dahle et al. 2003, Carroll et al. 2008a). However, with the notable exception of Yunker et al. (1996) and Boitsov et al. (2009a,b), the majority of studies are limited to the investigation of surface sediments (down to ~1–2 cm). In the present study, we examine the contaminant record (~150 years) from four locations along a south- north latitudinal transect of the western Barents Sea using sediment cores dated by 210Pb geochronology.

We identify potential contaminant sources based on interpretation of the congener proportions and overall sediment concentrations of the studied compounds. For PCBs and HCB we assess whether sediment contaminant levels reflect the decline in production associated with the regulatory ban on the usage of products containing these compounds. Finally, the study provides an opportunity to discuss the influence of burial and post-depositional sediment reworking processes PD-0332991 concentration on the interpretation of persistent organic contaminants detected in marine sediments. Sediment cores were collected from four stations in the central and northern regions of the western Barents Sea using a 4-core multi-corer (Figure 1). At each station, two of the four retrieved sediment cores were sliced at 1 cm intervals, and 1 cm of the outside edge of each interval was discarded

to eliminate down-core contamination. Sediments from similar depth intervals in each of the two cores were combined to obtain sufficient sample material for contaminant analyses. Sediment subsamples were stored in covered glass jars previously heated to 450°C. Sample jars were frozen at –20°C until further Olopatadine processing in the laboratory. The remaining two sediment cores collected during each multi-corer cast were stored for the analysis of sediment properties and of radionuclide concentration measurements: 234Th, 210Pb, 137Cs, 239,240Pu. Sediments at all stations were composed mainly of fine material (45–98% pelite) with organic carbon contents ranging from 1.0–2.4% Corg (Carroll et al. 2008b). Profiles of both 210Pb and 234Th were used to determine sediment mixing rates (Carroll et al. 2008b), while sedimentation velocities were determined by 210Pb and validated with 137Cs (Zaborska et al. 2008).

83%, p = 0 15) However, in univariate analysis of Stage III pati

83%, p = 0.15). However, in univariate analysis of Stage III patients, the LC was improved if treated with EBRT and BT (100% vs. 62%, p = 0.03). Also high-grade lesions tended to have improved LC with EBRT and BT (100% vs. 74%, p = 0.09). No factors predicted for improved LC on multivariate analysis, possibly because of the small sample size. In a review by Laskar et al. (42), 155 patients (98 treated with LDR and 57 with HDR) had WLE of the primary tumor with BT alone (55 patients) or with EBRT (100 patients). In their cohort, the disease-free survival (DFS) and OS were superior in superficial tumors less Epacadostat solubility dmso than 5 cm. Dose greater than 60 Gy was found to favorably

impact LC, DFS, and OS. They found fewer complications with BT monotherapy compared with BT and EBRT. The justification for LDR BT for STS rests

on these outcome reports and is supported by radiobiologic theory, which predicts for tumor control and normal tissue tolerance when sufficient and properly distributed radiation doses are applied. The limitations of LDR are radiation exposure to personnel, patient isolation for prolonged periods, limitations on nursing care, and potential for unrecognized catheter or source displacement. HDR BT with remote afterloading has become increasingly prevalent (Table 2) Tacrolimus in vitro because of improved radiation safety and better control of the dose distributions associated with a stepping source. There are several reports on HDR monotherapy [10], [24], [45], [46], [47] and [48]. Itami et al. (24) reported on 25 patients (26 lesions) treated with 36 Gy in six fractions of HDR (a dose that would be predicted to control microscopic disease). Their overall 5-year local regional control was 78%. LC in patients with positive margins and previous surgical resections was only 43.8% compared with 93% for patients with negative margins and no previous resections. All local recurrences were outside the treated volume. They concluded that EBRT should be added for patients with Teicoplanin previous surgery or positive margins as most of the recurrences would have fallen within a traditional EBRT volume. Koizumi et al. (47)

reported on 16 lesions treated with HDR 40–50 Gy in 7–10 fractions over 4–7 days twice a day (BID) prescribed at 5 or 10 mm from the source. LC was 50%. Of the eight uncontrolled lesions, 63% had macroscopically positive resection margins that may explain the relatively low LC rate. Although not strictly comparable to results in adults, Nag et al. (48) reported 80% long-term LC in children treated with HDR monotherapy (36 Gy in 12 fractions) with 20% Grade 3–4 long-term complications. Most of the reported HDR experience is with combined EBRT [10], [23], [25], [39], [46], [49] and [50]. Petera et al. (10) retrospectively reviewed 45 patients with primary or recurrent STS who either underwent HDR monotherapy (30–54 Gy) or HDR (15–30 Gy) and EBRT (40–50 Gy). The use of EBRT was at the discretion of the treating oncologist.

Mononuclear cells were isolated by density centrifugation over Ly

Mononuclear cells were isolated by density centrifugation over Lymphoprep (ρ = 1.077 g/ml) (Axis-Shield POC AS, Oslo, Norway), and washed

twice with 0.9% NaCl. Three hours after the second irradiation, PTC124 2.3–3.0 × 108 mononuclear cells/kg (0.4 ml) were injected in the tail vein of the recipients rats. The weight of the rats was monitored every other day. Three weeks after the BMT, one rat from the skin wounding group was killed based because of ongoing weight loss, possibly due to a sub-clinical infection. In the other rats only a temporary small weight reduction was observed. Five weeks after the BMT, blood was drawn and mononuclear cells were analysed for GFP expression by flow cytometry on a FACScan (Becton

and Dickinson, Franklin Lake, NJ, USA). Blood from 15 GFP-transgenic rats was analysed for comparison. The blood from seven DZNeP in vivo wild-type rats was used as a negative control to check the settings of the FACScan. Seven weeks after the BMT, 4-mm wounds were made in the palatal mucoperiosteum of 10 rats between the third molars under anaesthesia by a mix of fentanyl and fluanisone (Hypnorm, Vetaphrama Ltd., Leeds, UK) and midazolam (Dornicum, Deltaselect, Dreiech, Germany). In four rats, the skin on the back was shaved and disinfected (Hibiscrub®, Regent Medical Ltd., Manchester). Next, 4-mm full thickness skin wounds were Urease made under isoflurane (Pharmachemie BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) anaesthesia. These wounds were covered by a semipermeable polyurethane dressing (Tegaderm, 3M, Neuss, Germany) to create a moist wound environment. Subsequently, one layer of dry sterile fine-mesh gauze (Medicomp, Hartmann-Rico a.s.,

Masarykovo nám. 77, Czech Republic) was applied, and the rats were wrapped in elastic tape (Petflex, Andover, USA Salisbury, MA) to fix the bandages. About every two days, the elastic tape was replaced under isoflurane anaesthesia. The polyurethane dressing was never removed during the experiment. Buprenorfinehydrochloride (Temgesic®, Schering-Plough, Brussels, Belgium) was used post-operatively as an analgesic. Two weeks after wounding, the rats were killed by CO2/O2 inhalation, and wounds with adjacent control tissue were harvested. The tissue samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Five-μm sections were used for histology and immunohistochemistry. For general tissue survey, sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). For immunohistochemical staining, three sections (125 μm apart) of each tissue sample were mounted on Superfrost Plus slides (Menzel-Gläser, Braunschweig, Germany). The sections were deparaffinated and rehydrated. Next, they were post-fixed with 4% formalin and washed with PBS supplemented with 0.75 μg/ml glycine (PBS-G).

The coleoptile length, radicle number, and radicle length of seed

The coleoptile length, radicle number, and radicle length of seeds were recorded. The experiment was performed with three replications. In total, 50 germinated seeds were grown in plastic containers containing complete Kimura B nutrient solution [24]

under white light (150 μmol Photons m− 2 s− 1; 14-h light/10-h dark photoperiod) at 25 °C in a growth chamber. Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 300 mmol L− 1 NaCl in Kimura B nutrient solution for 7 days. The salt injury symptoms of seedlings were investigated and assigned a score of 0–5 following the method used in other studies [25], [26], [27] and [28], with some modification. The classification criteria of salt injury were as follows: level 0 (no injury), level 1 (damage on leaf tips), level Target Selective Inhibitor Library 2 (half of the leaf showing injury), level 3 (full leaf showing injury), level 4 (only the youngest leaf surviving), and level 5 (death). The experiment was performed with three replications. The salt injury index (SI) was calculated using the following formula [25], [26], [27] and [28]: SI%=∑Ni×iN×I×100where Ni is the number of plants assigned

with score i ? (from 0 to 5); N is the total number of tested seedlings and I is the highest score. The fresh weight and root length of seedlings were Selleck GSK126 recorded. The salt tolerance score at the germination and seedling stages was assigned according to the RSIR and SI ( Table 1). To determine the numbers of tillers per plant at the seedling stage under salt stress, T349, T378, and Jimai 19 were planted in pots (7 cm × 7 cm × 7 cm) with soil and watered with a 0.3% NaCl solution. Each pot had only one plant, with 12 pots in one plate and three plates for each replication. After growth for 3 months in a 4 °C phytotron, the number of tillers and the fresh weight per plant were investigated. The experiment was performed with three replications. T349, T378, and Jimai 19 were grown in saline–alkaline soil in natural fields using a randomized complete block design with six replicates. Each plot Decitabine clinical trial consisted of

10 rows 2 m long, with 30 seeds per row. The space between rows was 30 cm and the separation between plots was 50 cm. The average soil salt content was 0.66%. Seedling emergence rate was recorded 65 days after sowing. Other agronomic traits, namely biomass per plant, tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, plant height, spike length, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, were measured at harvest. The germinated seeds were grown in plastic containers containing complete Kimura B nutrient solution under white light (150 μmol Photons m− 2 s− 1; 14-h light/10-h dark photoperiod) at 25 °C in a growth chamber. Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 300 mmol L− 1 NaCl in Kimura B nutrient solution.

0 (really liked) for both aroma and taste, and at 30 days, the av

0 (really liked) for both aroma and taste, and at 30 days, the averages were 8.6 and 7.7, respectively, for aroma and taste. After 10 days of contact between the food and the active film, the biscuits already had the taste and aroma of lemon. Therefore, considering the results of the sensory evaluation, it seems that the biscuits can be flavoured only by the incorporation of aroma into the films. The addition of EO and/or aroma did not affect TS, but it reduced the percentage of elongation

at break. The use of EO and aroma together protected the film from changes of E over time and avoided the reduction in WVP. The addition of only 10 mL of aroma/100 g of polymer increased WVP. Sensorially, all biscuits were accepted with an acceptance average of approximately 8.0 for the aroma and taste attributes within 10 and 30 days

of conditioning. Considering the results of the characterisation of the PF-01367338 datasheet films and sensory evaluation of the biscuits, we recommended developing flavouring films that use the EO and aroma of lemon to prevent changes in WVP and mechanical properties through time. These films have great potential for application in the food industry, and future studies may also support the application of these films E7080 datasheet in other products. The study of the release of active agents may also lead to similar applications. We would like to thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) for their financial support. “
“Recently, many researchers have presented data on organically cultivated foods. These data demonstrate that the concentrations Montelukast Sodium of some compounds can be altered by changing the cultivation procedures. A comparative study on organic and conventional vegetables that utilized a proteomic approach has demonstrated differences in the expression

of proteins involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, polypeptides and secondary metabolites; these protein expression differences were attributed to the cultivation procedures (Nawrocki, Throup-Kristensen, & Jensen, 2011). Among secondary metabolites, scientists have reported on the alteration of phytochemical contents, such as phenolics and carotenoids (Lima & Vianello, 2011), and Williams (2002) has suggested that there is a need for specific studies on the phytochemical and glucosinolate (GL) content in organically and conventionally cultivated plants. Studies by Verkerk and colleagues demonstrated that plant glucosinolate concentration is related to environmental conditions and cultivation methods and is particularly sensitive to the sulfur content in the soil (Verkerk et al., 2009).

The primary questions emergency teams should pose when assessing

The primary questions emergency teams should pose when assessing oil spill scenarios are: buy AZD0530 (1) who will suffer the impact if an oil spill reaches

the shore? (2) will the oil spill, when reaching the shore, impact on areas of significant demographic pressure (e.g., major cities), environmental importance, or both?, and (3) if so, what can be done to mitigate (i.e., reduce) the impact on shoreline ecosystems and populations? A key factor when addressing Question 1 is oil spill distance to the shoreline (Fig. 9). Previous accidents such as the MV Prestige oil spill in 2002 showed that towing operations can be hindered by poor weather conditions, particularly when of remote oil spills that occur far from the shoreline ( Balseiro et al., 2003). In the case of the MV Prestige, the option taken in November 2002 was to tow the tanker to a distant offshore area where prevailing currents

would keep the spill away from the shoreline, allowing for the natural degradation of oil in the Atlantic Ocean ( Wirtz and Liu, 2006). The option was taken due to the precarious state of the tanker, which showed substantial hull damage and was in the imminence of sinking. Otherwise, ships should be towed to shoreline areas in which the spill can be contained and oil can be pumped out of containers by mechanical means, if the volume of oil is not overwhelmingly large. National and international environmental laws may apply to specific cases, such as in the USA with the oil pollution Act of selleck chemical 1990 ( United States Congress, 1990), but a good example of this latter procedure is the oil spill of 1999 in the Sydney Bay, Australia ( MacFarlane and Burchett, 2003). The readily availability of equipment

in this harbour allowed the Laura D’Amato tanker to remain inside the Shell oil terminal in Gore Cove, with the oil spill being confined to a small area ( Sydney Morning Herald, 1999 and MacFarlane and Burchett, 2003). Crude Erastin research buy oil spilt totalled some 296,000 l during unloading at the terminal of the Shell Co of Australia, but this volume was contained within a small portion of Sydney Bay. Question 2 depends mainly on the volume and type(s) of oil released to the water and, secondarily, on the volumes reaching the shoreline when of an oil spill (Fig. 9). In this case, two classes of oil spills can be defined: (a) oil spills derived from maritime accidents and (b) oil spills derived from production platforms. The main properties which affect the fate of spilled oil at sea are specific gravity, or its density relative to pure water (often expressed as API* or API gravity); the distillation characteristics of oil slicks (volatility); the viscosity of oil, and the pour point (i.e., the temperature below which the oil slick will not flow). In addition, high wax and asphaltene contents will influence the likelihood of oil mixing with water to form a water-in-oil emulsion (ITOPF, 2013). Oils forming stable oil-in-water emulsions persist longer at the water surface.