g., when the origins of existing farmland introductions are unknown; Dawson et al., 2008). Commercialising the wild harvest of NTFPs has been widely promoted as a conservation measure, based on the assumption that an increase in resource value is an incentive for collectors to manage forests and woodlands more sustainably (FAO, 2010). Experience shows, however, that the concept of commercialisation and conservation proceeding in tandem is often illusory (Belcher Sorafenib and Schreckenberg, 2007), as more beneficial livelihood outcomes are generally associated with more detrimental environmental outcomes (Kusters et al., 2006). The harvest
of fruit from the argan tree (Argania spinosa), endemic to Morocco, is a good illustration of the dilemmas involved. The oil extracted from the kernels of argan fruit is one of the most expensive
edible oils in the world and development agencies have widely promoted a ‘win–win’ scenario for rural livelihoods and argan forest health based on further commercialisation ( Lybbert et al., 2011). As Lybbert et al. showed, however, while the booming oil export market has benefited the local economy, it has also contributed to forest degradation. In circumstances where NTFPs are over-harvested from the wild, a widely-advocated method to alleviate mTOR inhibitor pressure on natural stands and support their more sustainable use has been the cultivation of additional product Aspartate sources in farms and plantations (e.g., Lange, 1998 and Strandby-Andersen et al., 2008). Although intuitive, there is surprisingly little clear evidence that this approach works, and some authors have suggested that cultivation may have a detrimental impact on forest and woodland NTFP populations (reviewed in Dawson et al., 2013), as planting can, for example, result in forest populations being degraded to ‘stop-gap’ supply status while cultivated stands mature (Clapp, 2001). Cultivation may also stimulate market development
that unintentionally ‘captures’ forest as well as planted product sources (Cossalter and Pye-Smith, 2003). Gaining an understanding of the circumstances in which positive linkages can be achieved between cultivation and the conservation of forest and woodland NTFP populations is not straightforward, and the topic requires active research (Dawson et al., 2013). Measures that support productivity under cultivation, such as genetic selection and improved management, may better support wild stand conservation (through ‘out-competition’). However, as already noted, this may result in poorer management of natural populations, and such a move may disadvantage the livelihoods of the very poor in communities who do not have access to land for planting and so can only harvest resources from the wild (Page, 2003).