, 2004; Mattson, Riley, Gramling, Delis, & Jones, 1998; Russell,

, 2004; Mattson, Riley, Gramling, Delis, & Jones, 1998; Russell, Czarnecki, Cowan, McPherson, & Mudar, 1991). The differences in the findings relating to the spontaneous and elicited play measures illustrate the difficulty in determining which alcohol-exposed infants are adversely affected. Given that the effect of prenatal alcohol on spontaneous play was not significant after adjustment for the HOME and SES, the data suggest that infant play observed casually by a clinician will not be relevant for assessing

fetal alcohol-related impairment, whereas a direct assessment CDK inhibitor of the infant’s capacity to imitate symbolic play behavior modeled by the examiner might well be highly informative. Identification of neurobehavioral biomarkers is particularly important in infancy when the facial dysmorphology is difficult to distinguish to facilitate determination of affected infants most in need of early intervention. A limitation of human fetal alcohol exposure studies is they that are by necessity correlational, and all possible confounding variables can not be controlled. However, replication of previous findings relating prenatal alcohol exposure to symbolic play in infants in two PD0325901 manufacturer independent, cross-culturally distinct populations suggest that

this is a robust finding. The alcohol information in this study relies on self-report from the mothers. The self-reports based on timeline follow-back interviews enabled us to examine

continuous measures of alcohol exposure, which were prospectively obtained during pregnancy by trained interviewers, an approach that we have previously Resveratrol shown to be more valid than retrospective self-report in predicting neurobehavioral outcomes (Jacobson et al., 2002). The validity of the self-report was further confirmed by findings showing significant correlations between maternal self-report of drinking during pregnancy and fatty acid ethyl esters of alcohol in meconium specimens obtained from a subsample of newborns from this cohort (Bearer et al., 2003). Diagnoses of FAS at 5 years also showed a dose-dependent relation between the maternal reports obtained during pregnancy and the subsequent severity of the diagnosis (Jacobson et al., 2008), thereby further strengthening the validity of the maternal self-report measure. In this cohort of infants from an urban socioeconomically disadvantaged community in Cape Town characterized by heavy prenatal alcohol use, it is of particular interest that competence in symbolic play was associated independently with both alcohol exposure in utero and quality of parenting. These data suggest that even infants whose symbolic play development is adversely affected by prenatal exposure may benefit from input from a responsive caregiver who uses play materials to provide appropriate stimulation.

In this study, we addressed

the question whether there ar

In this study, we addressed

the question whether there are differences in the gene expression profile of freshly isolated PMBCs among patients with T1D, their first-degree relatives with increased genetic risk of developing T1D and healthy controls with no family history of autoimmune diseases. Our working hypothesis was that a distinct type of ‘prodiabetogenic’ gene expression pattern in the group of relatives of patients with T1D could be identified. Study subjects and ethics.  The study population is described in Table 1, and clinical parameters related to the group of relatives are Cobimetinib purchase highlighted in Table 2. Using the radioimmunoassay (RIA), the sera from all relatives were examined for the presence of autoantibodies against the islet antigens GAD65, IA-2 (RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK) and insulin (Medipan GmbH Dahlewitz/Brelin, Germany). A sample was considered as positive if >1 IU/ml for GAD65 (GADA) and the same value for IA-2 (IA-2A) (>99th perc.). INCB024360 in vitro For insulin autoantibodies (IAA), the cut-off was 0.4 U/ml. Autoantibody examination was successfully evaluated according to Diabetes Autoantibody Standardisation Programme of the Immunology of Diabetes Society recommendations. Sampling of patients with the recent onset of T1D was performed after their metabolic stabilization

on 7th day after clinical diagnosis in morning hours (between 7 and 8:30 a.m., before Florfenicol the breakfast). Metabolic stabilization provided normalization of all biochemical parameters and established normoglycaemia. Patients who suffered from serious ketoacidosis were excluded from the study. Patients with T1D received normal diabetic diet and were treated with

daily injections of human insulin. Patients enrolled in this study suffered from neither inflammation nor apparent infection or other immunopathology. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained for all tested participants. Cell and nucleic acid isolation and gene expression array.  Approximately 8 ml of peripheral blood was obtained from each participant. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent according to the manufacturer′s recommendations (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) The RNA concentration was measured by a spectrophotometer (Helios γ; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). RNA integrity was assessed using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA). For obtaining sufficient amount of RNA for microarray assays, total RNA was amplified (aRNA) using Amino Allyl MessageAmp II aRNA amplification kit (Applied Biosystems – Ambion, Foster City, CA, USA). The amplification procedure included incorporation of 5-(3-aminoallyl)-UTP (aaUTP) into aRNA during the in vitro transcription, to enable coupling of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester-reactive Cy5 dyes.

“Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is highly prevalent bla

“Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is highly prevalent bladder disorder in men and women. About 10–15% of the population suffers from urgency frequency with or without urgency urinary incontinence. It is estimated that 50–75% of patients with OAB may have urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO). Urodynamic study invasive and most of the OAB patients might not accept it as a routine assessment. Therefore, a more objective and non-invasive test for diagnosis and assessing DO from OAB patients is needed. Recently, urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) has gained great interest in detecting DO in patients with OAB.

Urinary NGF level was found to increase in OAB and urodynamic DO. Urinary NGF levels correlated with severity of OAB symptoms. Patients with either idiopathic or neurogenic DO may have increased urinary NGF levels. Urinary NGF levels have been shown to decrease in patients find more with

MAPK Inhibitor Library concentration patients with OAB and DO who have been well treated with antimuscarinics or botulinum toxin injection, but not in those with persistent OAB after treatment. Not all patients with OAB can have an elevated urinary NGF level; it may also be increased in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and other lower urinary tract diseases, suggesting urinary NGF expression could be a product of bladder inflammation and a limited specificity of urinary NGF for diagnosing DO. The source of urinary NGF has not yet been fully explored yet. Nevertheless, urinary NGF level is likely to be a promising biomarker for diagnosis of DO from OAB patients, to monitor therapeutic outcome and predict disease progression. “
“Objectives: To examine the efficacy, safety, and dose response of tadalafil once daily in Japanese men with lower urinary tract

symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS). Methods: Men ≥45 years with moderate-to-severe BPH-LUTS were randomized to once-daily placebo (N = 140), tadalafil 2.5 mg (N = 142), or tadalafil 5.0 GPX6 mg (N = 140), in a 12-week double-blind phase, followed by a 42-week, tadalafil 5.0 mg open-label extension (OLE) phase (N = 394). The primary outcome was total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) change from baseline to last available observation in the double-blind phase. Results: The least squares (LS) mean difference between placebo and tadalafil in total IPSS change from baseline was −0.7 (P = 0.201) and −1.1 (P = 0.062) for tadalafil 2.5 and 5 mg, respectively (ANCOVA; a dose-dependent improvement in placebo-adjusted total IPSS for tadalafil 5 mg versus 2.5 mg of 57%). Repeated-measures analyses identified a significant total IPSS change for tadalafil 5 mg (LS mean difference between placebo and tadalafil 5 mg: −1.2; P = 0.035), but not tadalafil 2.5 mg, at week 12.

To compare the efficacy of these female T cells, we also immunize

To compare the efficacy of these female T cells, we also immunized one female dog in vivo with PBMCs from a DLA-identical male littermate. Male-specific recognition induced by UTY-specific CTLs after in vitro immunization

was comparable to those with T cells after in vivo immunization of a female dog (Figs. 3 and 5) as male-BM was targeted with the highest efficiency, followed by DCs and PBMCs, monocytes and B cells indicating an elevated presentation of male-antigens in BM, as previously assumed by others [11, 12, STA-9090 in vivo 44, 45]. Nevertheless, male-BM represents the most-affected target of female T cells, indicating higher and presumably different UTY-expression/UTY-presentation [46] and confirms the high-potential of UTY in female-to-male-transplantation settings (Figs. 3 and 5). Immunization of the female dog with DLA-identical-male-PBMCs induced UTY-specific CD8+T cells, as indicated by increasing amounts of donor-PBMCs. Other mononuclear-cells, like CD4+, CD14+ and B cells, also increased within the experiment, indicating an intense immune-response (data not shown). IFN-γ-secretion was detectable against the UTY-peptides when loaded on different target cells and hT2-MHC-I-restricted cells. Thereby, immunogenicity of investigated peptides was W248 > K1234 > T368 (T2-cells).

Detailed characterization of the UTY-response of female T cells exhibited a male-specific T cell response acting in an MHC-I-restricted-fashion (Figs. 3 and 5). As these blocking-experiments did not reveal a purely CTL-directed learn more T cell reactivity (incomplete blocking), these data could implement an additional CD4+T cell-driven reactivity [43, 47]. With these data, we can evidently exclude xenogeneic-CTL-activity as in vitro data were reproducible in vivo showing male-cell-type-specific comparable results. UTY-mRNA-expression was determined in cell-types of hematopoietic-origin (Fig. 4) and confirmed our in vitro and in vivo data: Only male cells expressed UTY-mRNA (male-BM≫DCs, PBMCs,

monocytes, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase B-cells), whereas corresponding female cells lack UTY-mRNA proofing male-restricted UTY-expression in hematopoietic-cells [48]. UTY-expression in non-hematopoietic cells was not shown in our study. This is compelling to demonstrate as UTY is ubiquitously expressed and would lead not only to GvL-reaction after adoptive immunotherapy, but also to GvHD after transfusion of CTLs. In order to show that our UTY-derived peptides are good targets for canine-/human-GVL-reactions, canine non-hematopoietic-cells like male-fibro-blasts/keratinocytes as well as gut-, liver- and epithelium-cells should be investigated in further experiments to prove this hypothesis. Three isoform-variants of the hUTY-gene are known (additional isoforms seem to exist) and splice-variants show different expression-profiles and tissue-distributions of resulting peptides [49, 50].

Samples were extracted and run in single well qPCR reactions due

Samples were extracted and run in single well qPCR reactions due to the large sample

numbers, high cost of testing, and previous work by the author’s group showing that triplicate wells give almost identical results (46). Serum samples collected at −7, −14, −21, 0, 7, 14, and 21 dpc were tested for the presence of PCV1-2 DNA and samples collected at 0, 7, 14, and 21 dpc were tested for the presence of PCV2 DNA by quantitative real-time PCR assays using primer-probe combinations as described previously (46) with the following modifications: a commercially available master mix (TaqMan Fast Universal PCR Master Mix, Applied Biosystems) was used, the reaction volume was 25 μL, only one aliquot was tested for each sample and the thermal find more cycler conditions were 95°C for 2 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 10 s and 60°C for 1 min. Samples were considered negative when no signal was observed within the 40 amplification cycles. Five serial dilutions of a PCV2 genomic DNA clone (105 to 109 copies/mL) were used to generate a standard curve with a correlation coefficient of > 0.99 (46). Serum samples collected at 7, 14 and 21 dpc were tested

for the presence and amount of PRRSV RNA as described previously selleck inhibitor (41). Samples were considered negative when no signal was Thymidine kinase observed within the 40 amplification cycles. All pigs were humanely euthanized by intravenous pentobarbital sodium overdose (Fatal-Plus, Vortech Pharmaceuticals, Dearborn, MI, USA) and necropsied at 21 dpc. The extent of macroscopic lung lesions (ranging from 0 to 100%) was estimated and scored as described previously (44). The sizes of superficial inguinal lymph nodes were compared among groups

as described previously (47). Sections of lymph nodes (superficial inguinal, external iliac, mediastinal, tracheobronchial, and mesenteric), tonsil, heart, thymus, kidney, colon, spleen, liver, small (ileum) and large intestine (spiral colon) were collected at necropsy, fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin, and routinely processed for histological examination. Microscopic lesions were evaluated by two veterinary pathologists (TO, PGH) who were blinded to the treatment groups. Lung sections were scored for the presence and severity of interstitial pneumonia, ranging from 0 (normal) to 6 (severe diffuse) (44). Sections of heart, liver, kidney, ileum, colon and thymus were evaluated for the presence of granulomatous inflammation and scored from 0 (none) to 3 (severe). Lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsil were evaluated based on LD and HR of follicles, ranging from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe) (22).

In order to reduce

the bias inherited in observational st

In order to reduce

the bias inherited in observational studies, the multivariate adjusted or propensity score matching (PSM) adjusted odds ratios (ORs) instead of crude ORs were extracted for analysis if available. Postoperative AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) was viewed as a more severe form of postoperative JAK inhibitor AKI and was analyzed separately. Two authors independently conducted a systematic literature search for surgery, statin, and AKI in Medline (via PubMed) from inception to April 2013, and EMBASE from inception to April 2013. We used a keyword list combining three separate queries composed of medical subject heading (Mesh) and text word (tw) keywords for the search. The three queries were directed at population, exposure, and outcome of interest, respectively (see Appendix 1 for the full search term). We did not apply any restrictions on dates, type of article, language, sex, or age. A similar search strategy and search terms was repeated in EMBASE. In addition, reference lists of

potentially relevant reports and reviews were screened to identify other eligible studies. All titles and abstracts from the search were recorded into a file. Two reviewers (Dr. Pan and Dr. Lee) independently identified articles eligible for in-depth examination using the following pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Observational studies and clinical trials from the inception of the database until April 2013 were included if all of the following inclusion criteria were met: (i) patients receiving major surgery; (ii) use of any commercially available statins

before operation; and (iii) report of AKI HM781-36B purchase at any time after operation. Major surgery was defined as cardiac, thoracic, vascular, intra-abdominal, and retroperitoneal surgery. AKI was defined according to :( i) at least stage 1 of Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) or stage ‘R’ of RIFLE stage,[48, 49] i.e. increase of the level of serum creatinine of greater than 0.3 mg/dL or greater than 50% from baseline; (ii) database codes of AKI at each study database; or (iii) AKI requiring RRT. RRT was defined as any type of renal support including haemodialysis, haemofiltration, haemodiafiltration, and peritoneal dialysis. Studies were excluded if any of the following exclusion criteria were met: (i) patients receiving renal transplantation and/or partial or total nephrectomy Loperamide operations; (ii) patients receiving endovascular procedures; (iii) publication types of review, meta-analysis, case reports, editorials, comments, and practice guidelines; and (iv) study types of animal studies or in vitro studies. When more than one publication from the same patient cohort existed, we included only the most recent publication that met the inclusion criteria. Any discrepancies of articles meriting inclusion or exclusion between reviewers were resolved by a consensus meeting of three authors. A summary of the study selection is given in Figure 1.

Monocytes expressing an anti-inflammatory phenotype have been obs

Monocytes expressing an anti-inflammatory phenotype have been observed

in vivo [11, 20]. Whether GA induces anti-inflammatory Selleckchem Omipalisib monocyte phenotypes directly or via modulation of other cell types has been unclear. Previous reports show that stimulation of anti-inflammatory/regulatory T cells by GA-modulated APC depends on MHC class II–restricted antigen presentation. However, MHC class II is not required to facilitate GA-dependent anti-inflammatory monocyte functions, suggesting that induction of anti-inflammatory monocyte function by GA does not require T cells [11]. Our data show that GA is able to further reduce proliferation of self-reactive T cells by directly enhancing T cell suppression by monocytes. Monocyte-like cells with the ability to suppress immune responses have been described in a variety of experimental models including tumours [31], allograft rejection [32], experimental autoimmune myocarditis [33] and EAE [34]. Furthermore, freshly isolated naïve blood monocytes [15] as well as monocytes generated in culture

from naïve bone marrow [33] exhibit the ability to suppress in vitro T cell proliferation. Here, we show that GA directly modulates monocytes in vivo in an MHC class II–independent manner, resulting in enhanced T cell suppressive function. Importantly, this suppressive ability does not depend on the presence of antigen in the culture, thus expanding on the findings of Weber et al. [11] concerning the role of monocytes in counteracting autoimmunity during GA treatment. Autoimmunity is associated with a Bumetanide break in tolerance resulting in the inappropriate expansion of self-reactive Fludarabine mw T cells. It has recently been shown that loss of constitutive monocyte-dependent suppression of autoreactive T cell activation may be a contributing factor in the development of EAE in mice [20]. Interestingly, a reduction in T cell proliferation has been suggested to be part of the mechanism by which GA ameliorates MS. In the light of

current and earlier findings [11], it appears that GA treatment plays a key role in re-establishing type II suppressor function as well as the ability to directly suppress T cell proliferation by monocytes and thereby recover the tolerance to self-antigens. Previous in vitro studies have provided evidence of direct binding of GA to MHC class II [35], although the functional relevance of this binding is controversial. Our data show that MHC class II is not required for either GA binding or enhanced suppressor function of blood monocytes in vivo following intravenous GA administration. The fast rate of binding of GA to the blood monocytes indicates that GA uptake is likely to be cell surface receptor mediated rather than via less specific mechanisms such as macropinocytosis. Although GA binding to αMβ2 integrin on human monocytes has been reported in vitro [36], in this study, we only observed binding of GA to blood monocytes in vivo.

[35, 44] The recommended target dose for MMF during the induction

[35, 44] The recommended target dose for MMF during the induction phase is 1.5–2 g daily in Asian patients, and it is advisable not to reduce

the daily dose of MMF to below 1.5 g within the first year, and not to go below 1 g daily within the second year. When MMF is used as induction treatment, caution should be exercised when its treatment duration is shorter CP-673451 purchase than 24 months in view of the reported association with increased risk of relapse.[35] Preliminary data suggest that dual immunosuppression with corticosteroids and tacrolimus or triple immunosuppression with corticosteroids, MMF at reduced dose, and tacrolimus may be effective treatments for Class III/IV nephritis or concomitant Class III/IV and Class V disease. Long-term data with these treatment regimens are awaited. The safety of calcineurin inhibitors during pregnancy is an added advantage. For the treatment of Class V LN, members of the ALNN agreed on the following: The threshold for immunosuppressive treatment is proteinuria ≥ 2 g/day in patients with normal renal function and inactive lupus serology, while a lower threshold may apply in patients with evidence

of deterioration in proteinuria or renal function or active lupus serology. Immunosuppressive treatment for pure Class V LN with heavy proteinuria should be a combination of corticosteroids and either CYC, AZA, MMF, or a calcineurin inhibitor. In view of individual variations in pharmacokinetics, blood level monitoring is important in patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors

to ensure adequate drug exposure and to prevent drug-induced adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity. Anticoagulation should be considered in selleck chemicals patients with persistent heavy proteinuria, especially when additional pro-thrombotic risk factors are present concomitantly. Control of hypertension and risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus is important to prevent accelerated vascular complications. Progress in the management of LN over the past two decades has translated into improved renal and patient survival rates. With prompt HSP90 diagnosis and treatment, the long-term outcome of Asian patients appears more favorable than patients of African or Hispanic descent. Different effective immunosuppressive treatment options are now available, which facilitates individualization of treatment to optimize the efficacy-vs-risk balance. Socio-economic factors remain obstacles in the access to optimal care. In addition to immunosuppression, the importance of adjunctive treatment such as blood pressure control, minimization of vascular risk factors, and reno-preservation cannot be over-emphasized. The knowledge gaps include the optimal management of patients with crescentic LN or thrombotic microangiopathy, the role of mycophenolic acid blood level monitoring, the role of biologics, the optimal surveillance and management of infectious complications, and the management of patients who are intolerant to current treatments.

Consequently, this observation could be extended

to patho

Consequently, this observation could be extended

to pathophysiological processes in which TG2 has been implicated, such as neurodegenerative disorders, where the cytokines mentioned above produced by microglia cells (monocytic-like) have been suggested to play a role [11]. Using a set of specific inhibitors [20–22] we were able to identify the main signalling pathways activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ that regulate the activity of the TG2 promoter. TNF-α activated the expression of TG2 through p38 MAPk, NF-κB and JNK. The p38 MAPK, probably acting through the AP-1 binding sites on TG2 promoter, was blocked by SB203580 (pyridinyl imidazole) [23,24]. Lapatinib in vitro Inhibition of JNK activity by SP600125 (anthrapyrazolone) Gefitinib cell line caused only a partial reduction of the TG2 expression induced by TNF-α. The NF-κB pathway seems to have a central role in TG2 expression after activation by both TNF-α or IFN-γ, as the use of two inhibitors, sulphasalazine (sulpha drug, derivative of mesalazine, and a potent and specific inhibitor of NF-κB) and BAY11-7082 (inhibits NF-κB by blocking cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation), completely abrogated the TG2 induction (Fig. 3). Different studies have shown that signalling pathways induced by IFN-γ involve activation of PI3K or NF-κB [17,24]. Upon activation, PI3-K mediates the recruitment and phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473, a

known target of PI3-K [17]. In the present study, the pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-K pathway, LY294002 [17] and wortmannin [25], inhibited significantly the effects of IFN-γ. Interestingly, using T84 cells, a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Professor C. Khosla and colleagues (personal communication) demonstrated that IFN-γ increases TG2 activity through a PI3K-dependent mechanism. The use of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, blocked the extracellular activation of TG2 and emerged as an attractive pharmacological agent for treatment of CD. Bioinformatic analyses (MatInspector Genomatix)

of the TG2 promoter region showed the presence of binding sites for several transcription factors involved directly in proinflammatory pathways, such Urease as SP1, ZBP, SMADs, GATAs, AP-1, NF-κB and signal transducers and activation of transcription (STATs), among others. Undoubtedly, the NF-κB pathway has been the one most intensively studied. TG2 is also able to control NF-κB activation by depleting the IκBα inhibitor via polymer formation, explaining a direct cross-activation between NF-κB and TG2 [11]. Using a luciferase reporter assay in Caco-2 cells (Fig. 4), we demonstrated the activity of some of the putative binding sites for transcriptional factors in the TG2 promoter, as predicted by bioinformatics. Expression of TG2 at protein level was evaluated by Western blot analysis, revealing the synergistic induction by TNF-α + IFN-γ (Fig. 5).

This work was supported by the 04/UR/08-05 Research Unit, from th

This work was supported by the 04/UR/08-05 Research Unit, from the Ministry of Health, Tunisia. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. “
“Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae has been used against ringworm in Kurdish ethnomedicine throughout millennia. Selleckchem AZD9291 The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. verus extracts against Trichophyton verrucosum on in vitro and in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. verrucosum (1.0 × 107 conidia) and animals were divided into five groups (n = 5 for each): negative control (NC), received a vehicle; positive control (PC), received topical terbinafine

1.0% and three other groups: AE10%, AE20% and AE40% which received topical 10%, 20% and 40% aqueous extract of A. verus, respectively. Evaluation of clinical efficacy was performed 72 h after completion of a 7-day treatment regimen. Higher significant antifungal activities were observed in aqueous extract in the concentration 320 mg ml−1 compared with acetone and methanol Ku-0059436 molecular weight extracts. The aqueous extract showed

minimum inhibitory concentration at 160 mg ml−1. Lower clinical scores indicate improved efficacy compared with NC. The lesion scores significantly declined in AE20%, AE40% and PC groups in comparison with NC group. The lesion scores in AE10% and AE20% groups were significantly higher than that of PC group. The AE10% group (18.3%) and AE20% group (39.43%) and AE40% group (66.19%) showed clinical efficacies compared with PC group (76.05%). In conclusion, aqueous extract showed promising antidermatophytic activity. “
“Screening Avelestat (AZD9668) of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes

and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi. “
“Repeated and prolonged use of fluconazole in treating candidosis leads to drug resistance.