The mortality rate of this disease is as high as 25 to 80%, despi

The mortality rate of this disease is as high as 25 to 80%, despite aggressive surgical treatment and antifungal therapy. This high mortality requires alternative treatment approaches. The accepted treatment modality of invasive mucormycosis are amphotericin

B lipid formulations. Although echinocandins generally show no activity against Mucorales, it was shown that Rhizopus oryzae expressed the target enzyme for echinocandins, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase. Additionally, there are some experimental studies in a diabetic mouse model and case reports regarding the effects of caspofungin. In this report, we present a rhinocerebral mucormycosis case treated with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. There was regression of the patient’s clinical and radiological condition with the addition of caspofungin, but she died due to discontinuation of her treatment and reasons other than mucormycosis. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Spinal segments show non-linear Natural Product Library clinical trial behavior under axial compression. It is unclear to what extent this behavior is attributable to the different components of the segment. In this study, we quantified the separate contributions of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs to creep

of a segment. Secondly, we investigated the contribution of bone and osteochondral endplate (endplates including cartilage) to the deformation of the vertebral body.\n\nFrom eight porcine spines a motion segment, a disc and a vertebral body were dissected and subjected to mechanical testing. In an additional test, cylindrical samples, machined from the lowest thoracic

vertebrae of 11 porcine spines, were used to compare the deformation of vertebral bone and endplate. All specimens were subjected to three loading cycles, each comprising a loading phase (2.0 MPa, 15 min) and a recovery phase (0.001 MPa, 30 min).\n\nAll specimens displayed substantial time-dependent height changes. Average creep was the largest check details in motion segments and smallest in vertebral bodies. Bone samples with endplates displayed substantially more creep than samples without. In the early phase, behavior of the vertebra was similar to that of the disc. Visco-elastic deformation of the endplate therefore appeared dominant. In the late creep phase, behavior of the segment was similar to that of isolated discs, suggesting that in this phase the disc dominated creep behavior, possibly by fluid flow from the nucleus.\n\nWe conclude that creep deformation of vertebral bodies contributes substantially to creep of motion segments and that within a vertebral body endplates play a major role. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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