2006). The recognition task was not considered for this comparison due to the
small amount of trials that were not correctly recognized. Components for the analysis were defined on a participant-by-participant basis, finding the peak or the average amplitude, for time windows obtained by visual inspection of the grand average ERPs (as in previous von Restorff Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies, such as Fabiani and Donchin 1995; Wiswede et al. 2006) and in concordance with the existing literature for the electrode sites to be considered (using the same midline electrodes as Daffner et al. 2000). As the N2b component overlaps with the P2 component, a peak-to-peak methodology was used (as used elsewhere for extracting N2 effects that overlap with P2, Perrault and Picton 1984a,b). The N2b was defined Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as the difference between the negative peak from 170 to 200 msec, and the positive peak between 200 and 250
msec. The N2a to novel sounds was defined as the negative peak between 180 and 250 msec. The P3a component was defined as the average CX-5461 molecular weight amplitude between 330 and 380 msec (for the fonts), and between 250 and 350 msec (for the sounds). The P3b was defined as the amplitude average between 350 and 550 msec for the sounds, and between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 380 and 600 msec for the fonts. The N2b component was computed at the Fz electrode (Folstein and Van Petten 2008), the P3a component at the Cz electrode and the P3b component at the Pz electrode (He et al. 2001; Polich and Criado 2006). These electrodes
were used for the font and sound condition. In Experiment 2, comparisons were made only between novel and standard conditions for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the sounds (auditory novelty), based on sound-stimulus-locked ERPs. Components for the analysis were defined by visual inspection, resulting in the following time windows: The N2b component was defined as the negative peak between 250 and 330 msec. The P3a component was defined as the average amplitude between 330 and 430 msec; and, the P3b was defined as the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical amplitude average between 430 and 630 msec. Results Experiment 1 Behavioral results Behavioral results are shown in Figure 2. Novel words were recalled more accurately than standard words (t15 = 2.45, P = 0.027). A novelty effect was also found in reaction times in the recall task. Participants were faster (t15 = 1.88, P = 0.078) in typing novel Adenylyl cyclase (mean RT = 7.7 sec, SD = 3.8 sec) than standard words (mean RT = 8.7 sec, SD = 4.4 sec). This effect was reversed for the recognition task, although this was only marginally significant (t15 = 2.05, P = 0.058). Moreover, words presented together with novel sounds were recalled less accurately than those presented with standard sounds (t15 = 2.98, P = 0.009); no difference was observed for the recognition task (t15 = 1.12, P = 0.28). Figure 2 Behavioral data of Experiment 1. (A) Percentage of words recalled correctly, for novel versus standard words. (B) Recognition accuracy, for novel versus standard words.