Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorpt

Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorption through the intestine. The objective of the present study is to enhance bioavailability of boswellic acid by its complexation with phosphatidylcholine. A complex of boswellic acid was prepared with phosphatidylcholine and characterized

on the basis of solubility, melting Metabolism inhibitor point, TLC, and IR. An everted intestine sac technique was used to study ex-vivo drug absorption of boswellic acid-phosphatidylcholine (BA-PC) complex and plain boswellic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity of the complex was compared with boswellic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Hypolipidemic activity was also evaluated in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia. The complex was also converted

into vesicles (phytosomes) and compared with other vesicular systems (liposomes and niosomes) by evaluating its anti-inflammatory effect. Analytical reports along with spectroscopic data revealed the formation of a complex. The results of ex-vivo study show that BA-PC complex has significantly increased absorption compared with boswellic acid, when given in equimolar doses. The complex showed better anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity as compared to BA. Among all vesicular systems phytosomes showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity. Enhanced bioavailability of the BA-PC complex may be due to the amphiphilic nature of the complex, which greatly enhance the water and lipid solubility of the boswellic SNS-032 mouse acid. The present study clearly indicates the superiority of complex over boswellic acid, in terms of better absorption, enhanced bioavailability and improved pharmacokinetics.</.”
“Neurofibromatosis NF-��B inhibitor type 1 is a common multisystemic disorder that can result in tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 are also at increased risk to develop moyamoya syndrome, which is a cerebrovascular condition that predisposes affected individuals to develop strokes as a result of progressive narrowing

of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and failure of adequate blood supply through collateral vessels. We report a case of a young boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 with glioblastoma who developed rapidly progressive moyamoya vasculopathy after treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab.”
“Purpose: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is influenced by genetic and cellular features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) aggressiveness.

Materials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board approved study, multiple enhancing and peritumoral non-enhancing stereotactic neurosurgical biopsy samples from treatment-naive GBMs were collected prospectively, with guidance from cerebral blood volume (CBV) MR imaging measurements.

A retrospective, repeated cross-sectional analysis was performed

A retrospective, repeated cross-sectional analysis was performed. All the admissions from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 through Saracatinib molecular weight 2006 that fit a Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 category were examined. Multivariate logistic regression models examining hospital mortality, nonelective admission,

and referral to high-mortality hospitals were constructed. Medicaid insurance [odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.46] and nonwhite race (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.54) were independent risk factors for mortality. Furthermore, Medicaid insurance (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.31) and nonwhite race (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.19-1.34) were associated with nonelective admission for congenital heart surgery. Finally, children with Medicaid insurance (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10-1.27) and black children (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.17-1.44) had higher odds of referral to high-mortality hospitals. Over the past decade, children undergoing congenital heart surgery continued to experience admission, referral, and survival disparities based on insurance and racial status.”
“The paper supports the development of evidence-based emergency management frameworks of cooperation between agencies in the area of drinking water and public health, as part of developing the overall risk management

culture within water utilities. We employed a qualitative research design to understand critical gaps in inter-agency relations that aggravated past drinking water and health ASP2215 price incidents and from these identified determinants of effective relationships. We identified six critical institutional relationship components that were deficient in past incidents, namely proactivity, communication, training, sharing expertise, trust and regulation. We then analysed how these

components are addressed by reputable water utilities and public health departments to develop positive examples of inter-agency cooperation. Control of different risks (e.g. public health, business, and reputation) resulting from drinking water incidents should employ a preventive framework similar to the multiple barrier approach for management of drinking water quality. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved”
“Myopericarditis is primarily a pericarditic syndrome with some degree of myocardial involvement, as evident by elevated cardiac enzymes. Differentiating myopericarditis from acute coronary syndromes can be challenging and may require coronary angiography or perfusion studies. Data on myopericarditis and its outcome for children are scarce. This study delineates the demography, clinical presentation, and outcomes of myopericarditis for children and evaluates the prognostic value of elevated troponin I. The authors retrospectively reviewed 880 patients younger than 18 years of age who were admitted with diagnoses of chest pain, myocarditis, or pericarditis between 2000 and 2010 at their institution.

Each subject completed the foot and ankle disability index (FADI)

Each subject completed the foot and ankle disability index (FADI) questionnaire to assess self-reported function. The spatial-temporal parameters of interest (stance time, step length, stride length, stride width, single-support time, double support time, and walking speed) were assessed while the subject walked at a self-selected speed.

Results: The varus group performed the timed up and go test significantly faster than the other groups (P = 0.05). All other variables were similar between the three alignment groups.

Conclusion: There was little difference in gait mechanics and function between

patients with end-stage OA based on coronal plane ankle alignment suggesting that factors other than coronal plane alignment contribute to diminished function. (C) 2011 Osteoarthritis selleck compound Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is becoming a serious socioeconomic health problem worldwide. The enhancement of the cholinergic nervous system is expected to greatly alleviate drug dependence. We investigated the effect of galantamine on the reinstatement of cue-induced

METH-seeking behavior using a self-administration experiment. Treatment with galantamine (1mg/kg, p.o.) 30minutes before exposure to the cues suppressed the reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. However, galantamine did not affect the cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior or locomotor activity. These results suggest that galantamine BAY 80-6946 molecular weight may be a candidate drug for treating relapses of METH-seeking behavior.”
“In current practice, donors and recipients are not matched for gender in lung transplantation. However, some data have suggested learn more a possible effect of gender combinations on lung transplant

outcomes. We examined whether donor-recipient (D/R) gender mismatch is related to adverse outcomes after lung transplantation in terms of early and long-term graft function and survival.

We reviewed 256 donors and lung transplant recipients over a 14-year period. Patients were distributed into four groups: Group A (D/R: female/female), Group B (D/R: male/male), Group C (D/R: female/male), Group D (D/R: male/female). Donor and recipient variables were compared among groups, including early graft function, 30-day mortality, freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and long-term survival.

Group A: 57 (22%), Group B: 99 (39%), Group C: 62 (24%), Group D: 38 (15%) transplants (P = 0.001). Donor age was 29 +/- 14, 27 +/- 12, 33 +/- 13 and 23 +/- 12 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.004). Recipient age was 31 +/- 15, 44 +/- 17, 42 +/- 16 and 30 +/- 16 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.000). PaO2/FiO(2) (mmHg) 24 h post-transplant was: Group A: 276 +/- 144, Group B: 297 +/- 131, Group C: 344 +/- 133 and Group D: 238 +/- 138 (P = 0.015). Primary graft dysfunction developed in 23, 14, 17 and 21% of recipients from Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.45).

Two entities,

acardiac twins (ATs) and amniotic band disr

Two entities,

acardiac twins (ATs) and amniotic band disruption complex (ABDC), have distinct patterns, indicating different mechanisms, namely vascular perfusion deficit and external disruption. With ATs and ABDC as model groups, this study was undertaken to see if other dysmorphic infants with the characteristic defects of these models formed distinct and numerically important groups. A total of 192 autopsies with nongenetic malformations was divided into groups including (1) those with defects found in the ATs but not in the ABDC, (2) those with defects found only in the ABDC, and (3) those with a mixture of exclusive defects from each model group. The cases followed the characteristic defects of ATs or ABDC in 20% (group 1) and 28% (group 2), respectively, GSK3326595 cost forming 2 large and distinct groups; only 4% had mixed malformations (group 3). Group 1 had different characteristics from group 2 as a result of the frequent multiple malformations, often with congenital heart defects (CHDs), MI-503 internal and inferior malformations. These cases were probably related to a vascular perfusion deficit. Group 2 had a majority of females and single, external, and superior defects, but it lacked CHDs and inferior malformations.

These cases were likely due to external disruption. Two large and distinct groups of autopsies with nongenetic malformations were thus identified, and their mechanisms are proposed to be similar to those of the model groups.”
“The effects of Ni substitution on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of (Mn1-xNix)(3)Sn-2 compounds (x=0-0.5) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. It was found that Ni substitution decreases the crystal cell volume and the magnetic transition temperatures compared with pure Mn3Sn2. The MCE for all samples has been calculated from the magnetization data in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change Delta S-M. The maximum values of Delta S-M(max) at the magnetic phase transition temperatures resulting from S3I-201 clinical trial a change in magnetic

field of Delta H=5 T were found to be 28.2 mJ/cm(3) K for Mn3Sn2 (T-C1 similar to 257 K), increasing to 31.2 mJ/cm(3) K for (Mn0.9Ni0.1)(3)Sn-2 (T-C similar to 167 K). (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3062953]“
“The separation of target nucleic acid sequences from biological samples has emerged as a significant process in today’s diagnostics and detection strategies. In addition to the possible clinical applications, the fundamental understanding of target and sequence specific hybridization on surface modified magnetic beads is of high value. In this paper, we describe a novel microfluidic platform that utilizes a mobile magnetic field in static microfluidic channels, where single stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules are isolated via nucleic acid hybridization. We first established efficient isolation of biotinylated capture probe (BP) using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads.

“Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are a rare pancreatic tumor

“Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) are a rare pancreatic tumor group with no standardized treatment.

selleck kinase inhibitor The aim of the study is to analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of our series and to review the current literature.

Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1990 to 2007 included patients who underwent pancreatic resection for histologically proven ACCs. All specimens of ACC were rereviewed by an expert pathologist. Follow-up was updated to October 2009. A literature search was performed by Pubmed and COCHRANE library.

Among 1,210 patients who underwent pancreatic resection, we identified nine ACCs. R0 resection was possible for all but one R1. We had no major complications and no mortality. All nine cases were diagnosed as pure ACCs. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median overall survival was 31 months, while median disease-free survival was 18 months. All patients developed liver metastases, requiring modification of chemotherapeutic schema, radiofrequency ablation techniques, or reiterate surgery. Currently, only one patient is alive without evidence of disease 85 months after pancreatic resection. One patient is

alive 52 months after operation, with evidence of recurrent disease.

ACC represents a rare solid tumor of the pancreas. Prognosis is dismal, although, compared to the more common ductal adenocarcinoma, Selleck FK228 survival appears to be longer. Patients with metastatic disease might benefit from aggressive multimodality treatments.”
“Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in elderly patients with stones of moderate size.

Patients and Methods: Between September 2008 and June 2011, a total of 28 patients over 65 years of age with single renal stones that measured 1.5 to 3 cm were treated with RIRS. The outcomes of these patients were compared with those of the patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using matched-pair analysis (1: 1 scenario). The matching parameters were the size and location of the stone as well as age, sex, body mass index, degree of hydronephrosis,

presence of previous shockwave check details lithotripsy, and open surgery. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Stone-free rates after a single procedure were achieved in 82.1% of patients for the RIRS and 92.8% of patients for the PCNL group. The second flexible ureterorenoscopy procedure was performed for five patients in the RIRS group. Finally, stone-free rates during the third month of the follow-up period were 92.8% in the RIRS group and 96.4% in the PCNL group. The mean operative time per patient was 64.5 +/- 20.9 minutes in the RIRS group after a total of 33 procedures, while it was 40.7 +/- 10.7 minutes in the PCNL groups (P < 0.0001). The overall complication rates for the RIRS and PCNL groups were 7.1% and 10.7%, respectively.

(C) 2014 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“This study’s a

(C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study’s aim was to define the clinical manifestations and long-term outcome of pediatric patients living at altitude with isolated pulmonary artery (PA) of ductal origin (IPADO). This was a retrospective cohort study of 17 consecutive cases of IPADO at a single center. All patients lived at modest altitude (median 2050 m [range 1700 m to 3050 m]). Fifteen children (88%) were symptomatic at presentation. High-altitude pulmonary edema was present in 2 patients (12%) at diagnosis, and only 1 patient had episodes

of hemoptysis during follow-up. Fourteen patients (82%) demonstrated evidence of pulmonary this website arterial hypertension (PAH). Among 14 patients with PAH, 11 patients had surgical interventions. PAH resolved in 5 of 11 patients (45%) undergoing surgical rehabilitation. One patient died during follow-up, and 7 patients are receiving oral vasodilator therapies due to residual selleck screening library PAH; 14 patients remained asymptomatic. Our study showed that early intervention in patients with IPADO at modest altitude can potentially rehabilitate the isolated PA and reverse PAH. Whether surgery is indicated for patients with this disorder in the absence of PAH is unknown.”
“BACKGROUND: Conventional biological waste-water treatment techniques are insufficient to degrade large quantities of dissolved lignin discharged by small-scale paper mills. The current investigation is aimed at comparing

the overall performance of basic electrochemical reactor configurations such as batch, batch recirculation, recycle and single pass systems, in removing the organic part of waste-water from a small-scale, agro-based paper industry. The effect of current LBH589 density, supporting electrolyte concentration, duration of electrolysis, specific electrode surface and fluid flow rate on the removal of pollutants and energy consumption are critically evaluated. The improvement in biodegradability of the effluent during treatment is also noticed.


batch recirculation mode of operation was found to be superior in comparison with a batch system using the same specific electrode surface for both COD removal (73.3 vs. 64%) and capacity utilization (rate constant 1.112 x 10(-3) vs. 1.049 x 10(-3) cm s(-1)). The pollutant removal performance of the batch recirculation system improved considerably with increase in the circulation flow rate. At the best operating point in the recycle system, 59% of COD was removed, corresponding to a current efficiency of 68.9% and specific energy consumption of 18.46 kWh kg(-1). The biodegradability index of the waste-water was improved from 0.18 +/- 0.01 to 0.36 +/- 0.01.

CONCLUSION: A recycle reactor was the best configuration, because of its flexibility of operation. Circulation flow rate and withdrawal flow rate enable the control of transfer coefficients and treatment duration respectively.

The patient became systemically very unwell and required intensiv

The patient became systemically very unwell and required intensive medical management, as well as a total course of antibiotics of 3 months. The piercings remained in situ. She did not develop a wound infection despite the presence of bacteremia and spinal instrumentation. The patient had no new piercings subsequent to her deformity procedure. Two and a half years after spinal surgery she reported no medical problems, had a balanced spine with no loss of kyphosis correction and no evidence of nonunion or recurrence of deformity.


The development of septic shock as a result of piercing reinsertion in the see more postoperative period has not been previously reported. This is an important consideration to prevent potentially life-threatening GSI-IX mouse complications following major spinal surgery.”
“The sprayed chemicals on tea leaves disappear over a period of time by the influence of rainfall elution, evaporation, growth dilution, and photodegradation. Influence of plant growth on the four fungicides (hexaconazole, propiconazole, tridemorph, and c) was studied to know the constructive loss of fungicides.

The study shows that residues of fungicides sprayed on tea shoots got diluted by the growing process. The expansion of a leaf took 8 to 11 d and more than 50% of the fungicide residues were cleaned out during this leaf expansion period. Under south Indian agroclimatic condition, the fungicides are sprayed at an interval of 10 d, so it is safe that the tea STA-9090 is harvested on the 10th day of the application of fungicides.”
“Spiral enteroscopy is the newest of the deep enteroscopy techniques. The current technique employs an overtube with a raised spiral at the distal end to pleat the small intestine and achieve deep small bowel intubation. Although spiral enteroscopy is a novel technique, the learning curve is comparable to the balloon enteroscopy techniques. There is some evidence of improved speed

of spiral enteroscopy procedures with superior control compared to the balloon endoscopy technologies. Altered surgical anatomy deep enteroscopy has been shown to have similar safety and efficacy to competitive technologies, particularly in cases of Roux-en-Y ERCP cases. Spiral enterosopy is safe and effective for deep small bowel enteroscopy and diagnostic yield and therapeutic yields are similar to alternate technologies. There are bright future applications of the technology with enteroscopes and an integrated spiral. Spiral enteroscopy is an advanced technique that can be performed by any skilled endoscopist. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Aims: To understand management strategies and outcomes of patients diagnosed with a head and neck tumour and a synchronous second cancer developed at another anatomic site.

Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with a head and neck carcinoma and a synchronous cancer and engaged in curative-intent treatments.

Conclusions: Most IH do not require treatment The majority of in

Conclusions: Most IH do not require treatment. The majority of infantile hemangioma occurred on the head and neck. When significant functional impairment, ulceration, bleeding, cosmetic deformity is encountered or anticipated, surgical therapy can be performed at any clinical phase with few complications and favorable outcomes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study aims to analyze the effect of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone therapy on the bone healing of critical size defect (CSD) in rat calvaria. A total of 30 Wistar male rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter trephine bur was used to create CSD on the right

side of the parietal bone of each rat calvarium. Once the bone was excised, a synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate

graft material was implanted to all the bone defect sites. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: Combretastatin A4 solubility dmso the control group (n = 10), which received no LLLT or ozone therapy; the LLLT group (n = 10), which received only LLLT (120 seconds, 3 times a week for 2 weeks); and the ozone therapy group (n = 10) (120 seconds, 3 times a week for 2 weeks). After 1 month, all the rats were killed, and the sections were examined to evaluate the presence of inflammatory infiltrate, connective tissue, and new bone formation areas. Histomorphometric analyses showed that in the LLLT and ozone groups, the new bone areas were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). In the LLLT group, higher new bone areas were found than in the ozone HSP990 price group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that both ozone and laser therapies had a positive effect on bone formation in rat calvarial defect, compared with the control group; however, ozone therapy was more effective than LLLT (808 nm; 0.1 W; 4 J/cm(2); 0.028 cm(2), continuous wave mode).”
“The ability of the parasacral sciatic nerve block (PSNB) to

induce anesthesia of the obturator nerve remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the anesthesia of the obturator nerve 3-MA concentration after a PSNB.

Forty patients scheduled to undergo knee surgery (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) were included in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive PSNB alone (control group, n = 20) or PSNB in combination with an obturator nerve block (obturator group, n = 20). After evaluation for 30 min, the two groups received a femoral nerve block, and patients were taken to surgery. The obturator nerve blockade was assessed by measurement of adductor strength at baseline (T0) and every 10 min during the 30-min evaluation (T10, T20, and T30). Pain scores after tourniquet inflation and during surgery were compared between the two groups. The requirement for additional intravenous analgesia and/or sedation was also recorded.

The two groups had comparable demographic and surgical characteristics.

RESULTS: The total number of RMR-TB cases more than tripled, from

RESULTS: The total number of RMR-TB cases more than tripled, from 31 in BI 2536 mw 2004 to 98 in 2008. The calculated doubling time was 1.63 years (95%CI 1.18-2.66). For the assessment of risk factors, 95 RMR-TB cases were objectively verified on genotypic and phenotypic analysis. Of 108 specimens genotypically identified as RMR cases, 13 (12%) were misidentified multidrug-resistant TB. On multivariate analysis, previous use

of antiretroviral therapy (OR 6.4, 95%CI 1.3-31.8), alcohol use (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.0-11.3) and age >= 40 years (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.4-13.6) were significantly associated with RMR-TB.

CONCLUSION: RMR-TB is rapidly increasing in the study setting, particularly among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Routine drug susceptibility testing should be considered in all TB-HIV co-infected patients, and absence of INH resistance should be confirmed phenotypically if genotypic RMR-TB is detected.”
“We report a case of successful pregnancy after rituximab in a patient

with a history of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failures and positive anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA). Following a course of rituximab, her ACA became negative and she successfully conceived with IVF treatment. This is the first case in literature describing the use of rituximab therapy in this clinical scenario.”
“Dissection of the carotid arteries is an important cause of ischaemic stroke in childhood. Rarely, blunt trauma to the soft palate can result in an internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection leading to thrombosis, embolism and stroke.

A 10-month-old child was admitted to hospital PR-171 Proteases inhibitor having presented with minor intra-oral trauma following a fall from a sofa whilst carrying a spoon in her mouth. After an interval, the child’s level of consciousness decreased. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance YM155 datasheet imaging of the brain and neck revealed occlusion of the left ICA, oedema of the perivascular

tissues and cerebral ischaemia in the left middle cerebral artery territory.

A carotid artery dissection after minor trauma to the soft palate is a rare, but potentially severe complication. The combination of minor precipitating trauma, prolonged symptom-free intervals and complexity of clinical neurological assessment in small children contributes to a difficult diagnostic dilemma.”
“Following the World Health Organization’s endorsement of the Xpert (R) MTB/RIF assay, which rapidly and simultaneously diagnoses tuberculosis (TB) and detects resistance to rifampin (RMP), the question arises to what extent RMP resistance is an adequate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). A retrospective analysis of data from >81 countries and subnational settings demonstrated that >40% of RMP-resistant isolates from new TB cases did not display resistance to isoniazid (INH) in settings with relatively low MDR-TB prevalence (one third of all countries and subnational settings).

Indications for surgery were genital prolapse in 7 (100%) women i

Indications for surgery were genital prolapse in 7 (100%) women in group I, 43 (68.25%) in group II, AUB in 0 and 6 (9.5%), CIN III in 0 and 5 (7.9%), fibroid up to 10 weeks in 0 and 9 (14.31%) in group I and II, respectively. Surgery performed in group I was vaginal hysterectomy and pelvic floor repair in 7 (100%) and 43 (68.25%) in group II, while it was nondescent vaginal hysterectomy in 0 and 20 (31.7%) cases respectively. There was very high rate of complications in vaginal hysterectomy done in genital tuberculosis as compared to controls like excessive bleeding in 2 (28.56%) versus

3 (4.76%); need for relaparotomy in 1 (14.28%) case versus 0 in control; postoperative peritonitis and flare-up in 4 (57.14%) cases MI-503 chemical structure versus 0 in groups I and II respectively.

Vaginal hysterectomy is associated with higher complication rate in women with genital tuberculosis.”
“The transmission of light through a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramic film, having a relaxor ferroelectric composition of (9.5/65/35), exhibited a Fabry-Perot interference pattern. Upon the application of an electric field, the transmitted irradiance was modulated at both the first and second harmonic frequencies to that of the applied field. Large changes were observed in the optical path difference within the material

due to check details a combination of the electrostrictive and quadratic electro-optic effects. A theoretical model was developed to obtain harmonic expressions for the Fabry-Perot transmitted irradiance, and it was successfully fitted to the experimental results. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3641985]“
“A permanent anti-graffiti coating based on a polyurethane resin was prepared by incorporating different levels of an OH-functional silicone modified polyacrylate additive. Static contact angle measurements and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were employed to evaluate surface free energy and mechanical properties of the coating specimens, respectively. Effect of ageing condition on the graffiti properties of the coating samples was evaluated utilizing an accelerated weathering test. Color changes, surface

see more morphology, and variations in the mechanical properties were also examined prior to and after being exposed to UV irradiation for 864 h in a QUV chamber. Results showed that surface free energy of the samples decreased with replacement of polyol with additive up to 5 mol %. A Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector revealed that for the samples containing more than 5 mol % additive, there was an enrichment of silicone at the interface of films and air. At long exposure times and higher concentrations of additive, depreciation of graffiti properties was seen. DMTA and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infra-red studies before and after ageing showed that the silicone additive tended to degrade while it could cause an increase in crosslinking density.