“BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment jeopardizes patient health and promotes disease transmission. In July 2011, Ecuador’s National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) enacted a monetary incentive program giving adherent drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients a US$240 bonus each month.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To Danusertib mouse describe patients’ experiences with the program qualitatively, and to assess its effects on treatment adherence.\n\nMETHODS:
We interviewed 92 current and five default patients about their treatment experience. NTP data on DR-TB patients receiving treatment were used to compare 12-month default rates among the incentive program group and non-program controls.\n\nRESULTS: Our interviews found that patients are financially challenged and use the bonus for a variety of expenses, most commonly food. The most common complaint was that bonus payments were frequently delayed. The 1-year default rate among program patients (9.5%) was significantly lower than the rate among pre-program patients (26.7%).\n\nCONCLUSION: Ecuador’s monetary incentive program alleviates the economic burden placed by treatment on patients. The bonus does not, however, directly address other selleck chemicals llc treatment barriers, including psychological distress and side effects. The
program could benefit from timely delivery of payments. Further research is necessary to assess the program’s effect on default rates.”
“This study described the extension of ultrasonic time-domain reflectometry (UTDR) for monitoring the fouling profile in a submerged hollow fiber membrane module under different operation conditions including aeration rate, fiber length and operational flux. Five 10 MHz ultrasonic transducers employed were mounted along the tubular test module with a single hollow fiber membrane evenly. A polyethersulfone hollow fiber membrane with inside and outside diameter of 1.0 and 1.6 mm was employed to treat 5 g/L yeast suspension. The experimental results
showed that the fouling could not be completely Selleck Blebbistatin prevented under the operation of the sub-critical flux, and still deposited at the upper part of the submerged hollow fiber membrane. The progress of foulant deposition onto the membrane surface gradually migrated from top to bottom and reached the plateau finally. Further, the increase of aeration and curtailing fiber length could only slow down fouling and reduce deposition rate to some extent, but could not fully avoid the membrane fouling. Moreover, UTDR technique was successfully employed to measure the relationship between the operational flux and particle deposition on the membrane surface so as to obtain threshold flux, under which could obviously alleviate membrane fouling. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.