3 mm relative to the middle time series volume (n = 5), functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) data exhibiting visible, stimulus-correlated, motion-related artifact (n = 15), incomplete questionnaire data (n = 1), or mean reaction time (RT; n = 3), number of errors (n = 4), or questionnaire data (n = 1) greater than 3 standard deviations (SDs) from the mean. This left 75 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical participants (56% female, mean age 19.1 years, SD 1.02 years) with usable data. After recruitment, participants completed the PSWQ and MASQ a second time. In order to best capture the level of anxiety at the time that the fMRI data were collected, only the data from the second administration of the questionnaires were used in fMRI analyses (all relationships remained significant when using the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical average value of the two administrations). For PSWQ, a 16-item measure used to assess anxious apprehension, participants
rated how characteristic (1 = “not at all”, 5 = “very typical”) each item was of them. Participants completed the MASQ 17-item Anxious Arousal scale and the 8-item Loss of Interest Anhedonic Depression subscale (Nitschke et al. 2001; Bredemeier et al. 2010).2 For both MASQ scales, participants rated how much they experienced each item during the previous week (1 = “not at all”, 5 = “extremely”). Stimuli Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and experimental design Participants completed two tasks, an emotion-word and a color-word Stroop (duration of each task = 12 min 20 sec) in fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) sessions. Findings from color-word Stroop are not presented here, beyond minor analyses to assess specificity, and findings from EEG sessions are
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not presented here (for detailed analyses of EEG data, see Sass et al. 2010 and Silton et al. 2010; and of color-word data, see Spielberg et al. 2011b). Order of presentation of tasks and sessions was counterbalanced across Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical participants.3 The emotion-word Stroop task consisted of blocks of positive, neutral, and negative words. Findings from the positive word blocks are not presented here, beyond minor analyses to assess specificity (for detailed analyses of these data see Spielberg et al. 2012; and Warren et al. 2010). In each trial, a word was presented in one of four possible ink colors (red, during yellow, green, blue), and participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate the color of the ink in which the word appeared. Word meaning was irrelevant to performance of the task. Descriptive statistics for the stimuli are presented in Table PTC124 datasheet Table2.2. Each word was presented for 1500 msec, followed by a fixation cross presented for an average of 500 msec, with a variable inter-trial interval (2000 ± 225 msec) between trial onsets. Word presentation and reaction-time measurement were controlled by STIM software (James Long Company, Caroga Lake, NY).