Results A 30 similar to min ALP-deposition time was determined as

Results A 30 similar to min ALP-deposition time was determined as optimal from mineralization capacity assessment and consequently used as Bio-Gide (R)-ALP membranes in the animal experiment. In vivo results showed that after BMS-777607 price 2 similar to weeks, the defect and implanted materials were still visible, an inflammatory response was present, and membrane degradation was ongoing. Bone formation, although limited, was observed in the majority of Bio-Gide (R)-ALP specimens and all of

the Bio-Gide (R)/Bio-Oss (R)-ALP specimens, and was significantly higher compared with Bio-Gide (R) and empty controls. After 6 similar to weeks, the defects and particles were still visible, whereas membranes were completely degraded. The inflammatory response was decreased and bone formation appeared superior for Bio-Gide (R)-ALP treated defects. Conclusion Immobilization of ALP onto guided tissue regeneration (GTR)/ guided bone regeneration (GBR)-materials

(Bio-Gide (R) and Bio-Oss (R)) can enhance the performance of these materials in GTR/GBR procedures.”
“Lactoferrin is an important nutriceutical with various physiological functions. It is present in whey at very low concentrations. This work describes a mixed-mode (hydroxyapatite) chromatography method for one-column fractionation of lactoferrin from whey. Lactoperoxidase, a protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric Linsitinib price point, was initially desorbed from the matrix under isocratic conditions. Lactoferrin was obtained in homogeneity without lactoperoxidase activity and free from other major whey proteins such as alpha lactoalbumin and beta lactoglobulin. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In the title compound, C7H7N5, the non-H atoms are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.050 angstrom), with the N atom of pyridine ring oriented to the N-N(H) side of the 1,2,4-triazole ring. The mean planes of the pyridine and 1,2,4-triazole rings form a dihedral angle of 5.58 (7)degrees. The N atom of the amino group adopts

a pyramidal configuration. The molecules are linked into a two-dimensional network parallel to (10 (1) over bar) by N-H center dot center dot center dot N hydrogen bonds.”
“Our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism FG-4592 clinical trial of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is hampered by a lack of access to affected human dopaminergic (DA) neurons on which to base experimental research. Fortunately, the recent development of a PD disease model using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides access to cell types that were previously unobtainable in sufficient quantity or quality, and presents exciting promises for the elucidation of PD etiology and the development of potential therapeutics. To more effectively model PD, we generated two patient-derived iPSC lines: a line carrying a homozygous p.G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene and another carrying a full gene triplication of the alpha-synuclein encoding gene, SNCA.

One of the best gains in health could be obtained by tackling the

One of the best gains in health could be obtained by tackling the most important modifiable risk factors; these results suggest smoking is among the most important.”
“Purpose: To determine whether selective laser trabeculoplasty buy Fer-1 (SLT) can lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with chronic primary angle Closure, elevated IOP, and it patent iridotomy.\n\nPatients and Methods: Patients with chronic angle closure who had underwent iridotomy. had an IOP greater than 21 mm fig and a gonioscopically visible pigmented trabecular meshwork for at least 90 degrees were enrolled. SLT was applied to open angle segment. Duration

of follow-up was 6 months.\n\nResults: Sixty eyes of 60 patients were enrolled. The mean baseline IOP was 24.6 +/- 2.5 mm HP. At 6 months, IOP reduction

of >= 3 mm Hg or 4 in in H v, was measured in 82%, and 72% of eyes, respectively, and IOP reduction of >= 20% or 30% was measured in 54% and 24% of eyes, respectively. When only eyes that were treated with the same number or fewer medications were considered, these IOP reductions were measured in 67%, 58%, 43%, and 15%. respectively. During the study period 1 eye (1.7%) required trabeculectomy owing to IOP elevation shortly after the SLT. There were no other significant complications attributable to SLT.\n\nConclusions: SLT seems to be a safe and effective method of reducing IOP in many eyes with primary angle closure and a patent iridotomy in which there is a sufficient extent of visible trabecular meshwork”
“The activity patterns exhibited by animals are shaped by evolution, but additionally fine-tuned by flexible responses to the MLN2238 mw environment. Predation risk and resource availability are environmental cues which influence the behavioural decisions that make both predators and prey engage in activity bursts, and depending on their

local importance, can be strong enough to override the endogenous regulation of an animals’ PCI-34051 manufacturer circadian clock. In Southern Europe, wherever the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is abundant, it is the main prey of most mammalian mesopredators, and rodents are generally the alternative prey. We evaluated the bidirectional relation between the diel activity strategies of these mammalian mesopredators and prey coexisting in south-western Europe. Results revealed that even though predation risk enforced by mammalian mesocarnivores during night-time was approximately twice and five times higher than during twilight and daytime, respectively, murids consistently displayed unimodal nocturnal behaviour. Conversely, the European rabbits exhibited a bimodal pattern that peaked around sunrise and sunset. Despite the existence of some overlap between the diel rhythms of mesocarnivores and rabbits, their patterns were not synchronized. We suggest that the environmental stressors in our study areas are not severe enough to override the endogenous regulation of the circadian cycle in murids.

Central blockade of aldosterone production, mineralocorticoid rec

Central blockade of aldosterone production, mineralocorticoid receptors, ‘ouabain’ activity, or AT(1) receptors similarly prevents

activation of these peripheral mechanisms. Cardiac remodeling after MI involves progressive left ventricular dilation, fibrosis, and decrease in contractile performance. Central blockade of this neuromodulatory pathway causes a marked attenuation of the remodeling and dysfunction, presumably by inhibiting increases in (cardiac) sympathetic activity and RAAS. At the cellular level, these systems may contribute to the cardiac remodeling by activating proinflammatory cytokines and cardiac myocyte apoptosis. New therapeutic approaches, specifically preventing activation of this brain neuromodulatory pathway, may lead to more optimal and specific approaches Duvelisib molecular weight to the prevention of heart failure after MI.”
“Hypertrophic chondrocytes exist in two forms detectable by electron microscopy, light and dark chondrocytes; the functional implications of the heterogeneous morphology are unknown The aims of the study were to establish a method for separating light from dark hypertrophic chondrocytes and to identify genes differentially expressed between the two populations Three-dimensional pellet cultures

of chondrocytes from cartilage of neonatal rats were induced to undergo hypertrophy by treatment with triodothyronine. Cultures were dissociated and subjected to density gradient centrifugation The cell fraction with the lowest density comprised predominantly light hypertrophic chondrocytes, and the fraction with the highest density comprised predominantly dark hypertrophic chondrocytes An Affymetrix GeneChip (R) check details rat expression array was used to compare expression between dark cell-containing pellets and the light cell-enriched fraction. Genes identified on the array as putative dark cell-selective genes Included genes encoding extracellular matrix

proteins and enzymic modulators thereof Expression of a subset of genes (Colla1, periostin, osteoglycin, tPA/Plat, and Chst11) was confirmed as dark cell-selective using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction The most highly differentially expressed dark cell-selective gene was periostin. In immunocytochemical studies of light and dark cell-enriched fractions, periostin staining was detectable in dark, but not light hypertrophic chondrocytes The results provide insight into molecular differences between light and dark hypertrophic chondrocytes (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Crithidia deanei is a trypanosomatid protozoan that harbours a symbiotic bacterium. The partners maintain a mutualistic relationship, thus constituting an excellent model for studying metabolic exchanges between the host and the symbiont, the origin of organelles and cellular evolution. According to molecular analysis, symbionts of different trypanosomatid species share high identity and descend from a common ancestor, a beta-proteobacterium of the genus Bordetella.

We suggest that the retention of structural complexity on ski run

We suggest that the retention of structural complexity on ski runs (e.g. through the cessation of mowing during peak reptile activity periods) and/or revegetation with native plant communities will concurrently provide refuge from predators and buffer against extreme temperatures, making ski runs more hospitable to reptiles.

Based on our findings, we emphasize that effective management strategies targeting subalpine biodiversity conservation require an understanding of the drivers that determine species distributions in these landscapes.”
“1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally Apoptosis inhibitor ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale. 2. We combined experimental and

mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat-insect JNJ-26481585 price community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed

diet. 3. Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume +/- SD: 5.91 +/- 6.25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume +/- SD: 35.42 +/- 17.90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given selleck products diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour. 4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting.

“The title compound, C(30)H(38)O(8),

possess C(i)

“The title compound, C(30)H(38)O(8),

possess C(i) symmetry, with the inversion center situated at the center of the bridging C-C bond. In the crystal structure, molecules are held together by C-H center dot center dot center dot O interactions.”
“Frailty is a known risk factor for those aged 65 and over, and its prevalence increases with age. Definitions of frailty vary widely, MI-503 supplier and prevalence estimates are affected by the way frailty is defined. Systematic reviews have yet to examine the literature on the association between definitions of frailty and mortality.\n\nWe examined the definitions and prevalence of frailty and its association with survival in older community-dwelling adults. We conducted a systematic review of observational population-based studies published in English. We calculated pooled prevalence of frailty with a random effects model.\n\nWe identified 24 population-based studies that examined frailty in community-dwelling

older adults. The pooled prevalence was 14% when frailty was defined as a phenotype exhibiting three or more of the following: weight loss, fatigue/exhaustion, weakness, low physical activity/slowness, and mobility impairment. The Liproxstatin-1 supplier pooled prevalence was 24% when frailty was defined by accumulation of deficits indices that included up to 75 diseases and impairments. The prevalence of frailty increased with age and was greater in women and in African Americans. Frailty in older adults was associated with poor survival with a dose-responsive reduction in survival per increasing number of frailty criteria. Taking into account population prevalence and multivariate adjusted relative risks, we estimated that 3-5% of deaths among older adults could selleckchem be delayed if frailty was prevented.\n\nFrailty is a prevalent and important geriatric syndrome associated with decreased survival. Geriatric assessment of frailty provides clinically important information about functional status and survival of older adults. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenic cardiac disorder encountered in the clinic. Data relative to the electrophysiologic characteristics and pharmacologic responsiveness of human tissues and cells isolated from patients with HCM are rare. As a consequence, cellular mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenicity are poorly understood.\n\nMethodsCardiomyocytes were enzymatically dissociated from a septal myectomy surgically removed from a patient with obstructive HCM. Sharp microelectrodes and patch-clamp techniques were used to evaluate action potential and sodium channel current (I-Na) characteristics.\n\nResultsAction potential morphology recorded was typical of an M cell, but with a longer than normal duration (APD) and a relatively steep APD-rate relationship.

Number of AEDs was also considered Lamotrigine

Number of AEDs was also considered. Lamotrigine IPI-145 order and GTCS frequency were considered separately in two of the case-control studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate GTCS frequency, each of the AEDs, and number of AEDs. Adjusted analysis of the different AEDs accounted for study, age at death, gender, and GTCS frequency. KEY FINDINGS: In crude analysis, GTCS frequency, AED polytherapy, and number of AEDs were associated with an increased risk for SUDEP. Analysis of individual AEDs and of number of AEDs, adjusting for GTCS frequency, revealed no increased risk associated with AEDs as monotherapy, polytherapy, or total number. GTCS frequency remained strongly

associated with an increased risk for SUDEP. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings-that none of the AEDs considered were associated with increased SUDEP risk as monotherapy or as polytherapy when GTCS frequency was taken into account-provide a consistent message that number of GTCS increases SUDEP risk and not AEDs. These results suggest that prevention of SUDEP must involve increased efforts to decrease GTCS frequency in order to avert the occurrence of this devastating epilepsy outcome.”
“We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, the largest fish of the Amazon basin, and economically one of the most important species of the region. The total length of the Arapaima gigas mitochondrial genome is 16,433 bp. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding

genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. Twelve of the thirteen protein-coding genes are coded on the heavy strand, while nad6 is coded

on the light strand. Selleckchem ACY-738 The Arapaima gene order and content is identical to the common vertebrate form, as is codon usage and base composition. Its control region is atypical in being short at 767 bp. The control region also contains a conserved ATGTA motif recently identified in the Asian arowana, three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CBS-2 and CBS-3) and its 3′ end contains long series of di- and mono-nucleotide microsatellite MCC950 solubility dmso repeats. Other osteoglossiform species for which control region sequences have been published show similar control region characteristics.”
“Recent studies have associated alterations of neuronal plasticity in specific brain areas with suicidal behavior. The Notch signaling pathway plays a relevant role in the control of stem cell maintenance, cell migration, and neuronal plasticity. In the present study, the gene expression of the four Notch receptors (NOTCH1-4), the five canonical ligands (DLL1, DLL3, DLL4, JAGGED1, and JAGGED2), the two non-canonical ligands (DLK1 and DLK2), and the transcription factors (HES1, HEY1, and HEY2) were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and amygdala (AMY) of suicide victims (S; n = 13 males, with no clinical psychiatric history and non-treated with anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs) and their corresponding controls (C; n = 13 males) by real-time PCR.

For each type of strain (longitudinal [LS], circumferential [CS],

For each type of strain (longitudinal [LS], circumferential [CS], and radial strain [RS]) we compared global,

anatomical level and segmental values. Results: When comparing 2DS to VVI, Pearson correlation coefficients (r) of global LS, CS, and RS were 0.68, 0.44, and 0.59, respectively (all P < 0.05). Correlation of global TTP was higher: 0.81(LS), 0.80 (CS), and 0.68 (RS), all P < 0.01. Segmental peak strain differed significantly between 2DS and VVI in 8/18 (LS), 17/18 (CS), and 15/18 (RS) LV segments (P < 0.05). However, segmental TTP significantly FDA-approved Drug Library cell line differed only in 5/18 (LS), 7/18 (CS), and 4/18 (RS) of LV segments. Similar strain gradients were found for both systems: apical strain was higher than basal and midventricular strain in LS and CS, with a reversed pattern for RS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TTP strain as well as strain gradients were comparable between VVI and 2DS, but most peak strain values were not. The software-dependency of peak strain values must be considered in clinical application. Further studies comparing the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of strain values generated by different software A-1331852 in vivo systems are mandatory. (Echocardiography 2011;28:539-547).”
“A facile ethylenediamine diacetate (EDDA)-catalyzed

one-pot synthesis of biologically interesting flavanone derivatives from 2-hydroxyacetophenones, aromatic aldehydes, and aniline via a Mannich-type reaction is described. This synthetic method provides a rapid access to biologically interesting flavanone derivatives. To demonstrate this method, several biologically interesting

natural products bearing a flavanone moiety were synthesized as racemates.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and reinjection interval of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant) in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion patients receiving bigger than = 2 DEX implant treatments. Methods: Multicenter (26-site), retrospective chart review CT99021 concentration study. Data were collected from baseline (at first DEX implant) through 3 months to 6 months after last DEX implant. Results: Patients (n = 289) received 2 to 9 (mean, 3.2) DEX implants as monotherapy (29.1% of patients) or with adjunctive treatments/procedures. Mean duration of macular edema before first DEX implant was 18.4 months. Mean reinjection interval was 5.6 months. Mean peak change in best-corrected visual acuity from baseline through 4 weeks to 20 weeks after final DEX implant was + 1.0 line (P smaller than 0.001). Best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness improved significantly from baseline after each of the first 6 DEX implant injections (P smaller than = 0.037); 59.7% of branch retinal vein occlusion and 66.7% of central retinal vein occlusion patients achieved bigger than = 2-line best-corrected visual acuity improvement. Intraocular pressure increase ( bigger than = 10 mmHg) occurred in 32.6% of patients; 29.

We derive the statistical distributions of this technique in term

We derive the statistical distributions of this technique in terms of nucleotide probabilities of the target sequences. We give exact distributions both for fixed number of flow cycles and for fixed sequence length. Explicit formulas are derived for the mean and variance of these distributions. In both cases, the distributions can be approximated accurately by normal distributions with the same mean and variance. The statistical distributions will be useful for instrument and software development for pyrosequencing platforms.”
“Fruit leathers are pectic gels, eaten as snack or dessert, obtained by dehydrating fruit purees. In this work, apple leathers were prepared by a hot-air drying process

which allows the formation of a gel, following the “saccharide-acid-high methoxyl pectin” gelation mechanism. Leathers were produced at 50, 60 and 70 degrees C, from two formulations: control and added with potassium metabisulphite (KM) as antioxidant. The

drying process was studied applying a NVP-LDE225 diffusive model, while antioxidant capacity (AC) losses were represented by a first-order model. Activation energy for drying (20.6 kJ/mol) was lower than those estimated for AC losses in control (31.5 kJ/mol) and KM-added (37.9 kJ/mol) leathers. Therefore, the drying time reduction achieved by increasing air temperature is not sufficient to decrease AC losses in the range covered. AC retention decreased in both formulations at increasing air temperature. KM-added samples showed higher AC retention than the controls, except for those dried at 70 degrees C. Kinetic constants were lower for KM-added samples, suggesting a protective effect of the additive, especially at moderate air temperatures. In the most favorable situation, AC retention was of only 16%. Therefore, the functional character of these products may not be preserved if dried with hot air and the research on economically viable, less-severe drying technologies

should be intensified. (C) 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from smaller than 10% to 81% after pretreatment. Glucose yield at 2 and 72 h are well correlated with surface area and maximum adsorption capacity.

05) in the CSF samples among the different

05) in the CSF samples among the different phosphatase inhibitor groups. Among that, the potential biomarkers in CSF of ischemic rats were: acetic acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, choline, L-alanine, creatine, creatinine, glycine, pyruvic acid, glycerol, glutamic acid, D-fructose, L-lactic acid and acetone. These findings help us understand the biochemical metabolite changes in CSF of I/R rats in early stages. What’s more, metabolomics may, therefore, have the potential to be developed into a clinically useful diagnostic tool of ischemic brain injury.”
“MicroRNA (miR) are emerging as important gene expression regulators often

involved in a variety of pathogenesis such as cancers and autoimmunity. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are the principle signaling proteins for many cytokines and growth factors, thereby play

a critical role in regulating immune cell homeostasis, differentiation and cellular functions. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field demonstrating active interactions between STATs and miRs, with our primary focus on the promotion and inhibition of immune cells and cancer. Additionally, we review the reciprocal regulations between STATs and miR, and discuss how we can use this knowledge in the context of diseases. For example, recent findings related to STAT1 and miR-155 support the presence of a positive feedback loop of miR-155 and STAT1 in response to inflammatory signals or infection. STAT3 is known to play critical roles in tumorigenesis and cancer-induced immunosuppression. There is Selleckchem Tozasertib a growing body of evidence demonstrating that STAT3 directly activates miR-21, one of miRs that promote cancer cell survival and proliferation. While some miRs directly regulate STATs, there are findings demonstrating indirect STAT regulation by miRs also mediate important biological mechanisms. Therefore, further research is warranted to elucidate significant contributions made by direct and indirect miR-STAT mechanisms. As we see more learn more about miR pathways, we gain the opportunity

to manipulate them in cancer cells to slow down growth or increase their susceptibility anti-tumor immunity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Chinese navy hospital ship (Peace Ark) has performed a good number of overseas humanitarian medical aid missions since it was fielded. The first-aid unit has been sent out by the hospital ship to temporary medical service site at the host country territory and performs humanitarian medical aid mission, which expands the hospital ship space and avails the hospital ship to implement accompanying medical support tasks in a modular, multi-point and multi-faceted way whether it is peacetime and wartime. The first-aid unit can independently fulfill diagnosis and treatment of common diseases, but can not do surgery.

There are already substantial costs to farms and agribusiness fro

There are already substantial costs to farms and agribusiness from non-biosecure

diseases/conditions. Experts preferred an equal allocation of resources between these biosecure and non-biosecure diseases/conditions, with emphasis on adopting/adapting international models, education and awareness-raising. The results from this study provide robust insights about non-regulatory animal health priorities in Ireland, as perceived by experts and farmers, using methodologies that are both transparent and inclusive. They have already been extremely influential in shaping national policy, as a foundation BEZ235 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor for interdisciplinary (and multi-agency) cooperation, as a contribution to efforts to encourage stakeholder responsibility-taking, and to ongoing development of postgraduate and undergraduate veterinary education in Ireland. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil salinity on emergence, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation of seedlings of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. NaCl was added to the soil and salinity was maintained at 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5, 23.0, 25.6 and 28.2 psu. A negative relationship between seedling emergence and salt concentration was obtained. selleck Nevertheless, this mangrove is highly salt tolerant during germination. Growth

GSK1120212 manufacturer of seedlings was significantly promoted by low salinity and optimum growth was obtained at 15.4 psu. Higher salinities inhibited plant growth. Growth and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed the same optimum curve. Water potential of tissues became significantly more negative with increasing salinity, and praline content

significantly increased. Moreover, water potential and praline content of tissues displayed an S-curve with the inflection point below similar to 10 psu. The concentration of Na in tissues increased significantly, whereas K, Ca, Mg, N and P content decreased. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Joint bleeds in haemophilia result in iron-mediated synovitis and cartilage damage. It was evaluated whether deferasirox, an iron chelator, was able to limit the development of haemophilic synovitis and cartilage damage. Haemophilic mice were randomly assigned to oral treatment with deferasirox (30 mg/kg) or its vehicle (control) (30 mg/kg). Eight weeks after start of treatment, haemarthrosis was induced. After another five weeks of treatment, blood-induced synovitis and cartilage damage were determined. Treatment with deferasirox resulted in a statistically significant (p smaller than 0.01) decrease in plasma ferritin levels as compared to the control group (823 ng/ml +/- 56 and 1220 ng/ml +/- 114, respectively). Signs of haemophilic synovitis, as assessed by the Valentino score [range 0 (normal) - 10 (most affected)], were not different (p=0.