47% for Hispanics, .49% for NHW, .53% for PR and .76% for NHB. The ratio of estimated probabilities only showed significant lower risk of death in PR as compared to NHB (.70, 95% CI=.54.85).\n\nConclusions: The lifetime risk of developing corpus uterine cancer
has increased in PR, suggesting higher exposure to risk factors in this population. Despite the lower lifetime risk of this malignancy in PR as compared to NHW, the similar lifetime risk of death in these groups suggests a disparity that may be influenced by differences in disease etiology and/or access or response to treatment. Assessment of risk factors, in addition to access to health services, is required to further understand these patterns.”
“Catecholamines seem to play a role in equine exercise physiology that is somewhat different from their role in human beings. In sport horses, a greater increase in plasma adrenaline this website (ADR) levels occurs in response to strenuous exercise as compared with human Prexasertib research buy beings. However, it is not known whether this is true for breeds not specifically bred for sport. The aim of this study was to gather data on plasma catecholamine kinetics during exercise in a nonracing breed. We also attempted to evaluate the influence of the phases preceding the start of the exercise on the kinetics
of these molecules. Four 2-year-old female Esperia ponies were made to perform a four-step exercise test on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected in the box (basal 1), in the treadmill room (basal 2), and at the conclusion of each step, using an automatic system. ADR and noradrenaline (NOR) levels were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. As compared with basal 1, basal 2 showed a significant 19.6-fold increase for ADR and a 6.7-fold increase for NOR. The highest concentration was observed for both molecules at the Ricolinostat end of the fourth step, with a significant 1.2-fold increase as compared with blood samples collected at basal 2
for ADR and a 2.4-fold increase for NOR. Therefore, in Esperia ponies, catecholamine showed a trend similar to that of Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds. The results reported in this study also revealed a marked increase in ADR in the phases preceding the beginning of physical activity. Therefore, the greater adrenergic activity in horses in response to exercise could be because of an anticipatory response. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The Kosice meteorite was observed to fall on 28 February 2010 at 23: 25 UT near the city of Kosice in eastern Slovakia and its mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry are described. The characteristic features of the meteorite fragments are fan-like, mosaic, lamellar, and granular chondrules, which were up to 1.2 mm in diameter. The fusion crust has a black-gray color with a thickness up to 0.6 mm. The matrix of the meteorite is formed mainly by forsterite (Fo(80.
mfERG was repeated 8 weeks after injection, and changes in visual acuity and mfERG compared in two groups.\n\nResults: The mean best corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) at baseline were 0.55 in IVB group and 0.51 in control group and at 8(th) week were 0.41 and 0.53 respectively, also the amplitude and implicit time showed significant improvement in mfERG. Significant improvement in visual acuity and amplitude of waves of mfERG were observed compared with sham this website group.\n\nConclusion:
IVB injection can augment the effect of MPC in DME and can be used as an adjunctive treatment in these cases.”
“This paper is devoted to the third part of the analysis of the very weak absorption spectrum of the O-18(3) isotopologue of ozone recorded by CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy between 5930 and 6900 cm (1). In the two first parts [A. Campargue, A. Liu, S. Kassi, D. Romanini, M.-R. De Backer-Barilly, A. Barbe, E. Rigosertib Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, VI. G. Tyuterev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2009.02.012 and E. Starikova, M.-R. De Backer-Barilly, A. Barbe, VI. G. Tyuterev, A. Campargue, A. W. Liu, S. Kassi, J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.jms.2009.03.013], the effective operators approach was used to model the spectrum in the 6200-6400 and 5930-6080 cm (1) regions, respectively. The analysis of the whole investigated region is completed
by the present investigation of the 6490-6900 cm (1) upper range. Three sets of interacting states GW 572016 have been treated separately. The first one falls in the 6490-6700 cm (1) region, where 1555 rovibrational transitions were assigned to three A-type bands: 3 nu(2) + 5 nu(3), 5 nu(1) + nu(2) + nu(3) and 2 nu(1) + 3 nu(2) + 3 nu(3) and one B-type band: nu(1) + 3 nu(2) + 4 nu(3). The corresponding line positions were reproduced with an rms deviation of 18.4 x
10 (3) cm (1) by using an effective Hamiltonian (EH) model involving eight vibrational states coupled by resonance interactions. In the highest spectral region -6700-6900 cm (1) 389 and 183 transitions have been assigned to the nu(1) + 2 nu(2) + 5 nu(3) and 4 nu(1) + 3 nu(2) + nu(3) A-type bands, respectively. These very weak bands correspond to the most excited upper vibrational states observed so far in ozone. The line positions of the nu(1) + 2 nu(2) + 5 nu(3) band were reproduced with an rms deviation of 7.3 x 10 (3) cm (1) by using an EH involving the (054), (026), (125) interacting states. The coupling of the (431) upper state with the (502) dark state was needed to account for the observed line positions of the 4 nu(1) + 3 nu(2) + nu(3) band (rms = 5.7 x 10 (3) cm (1)).\n\nThe dipole transition moment parameters were determined for the different observed bands. The obtained set of parameters and the experimentally determined energy levels were used to generate a complete line list provided as Supplementary Materials.
In this review we would like to analyse the main
inhibitors, focusing on chemical structures, SAR and biological properties. The specific targeting of these kinases could result in highly active drugs with minimal collateral host toxicity. Moreover, the combination of Aurora inhibitors with other chemotherapeutic agents may open new opportunities in cancer chemotherapy.”
“We previously demonstrated that direct intramuscular injection of rAAV2 or rAAV6 in wild-type dogs resulted in robust T-cell responses to viral capsid proteins, and others have shown that cellular immunity to adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid proteins coincided with liver toxicity and elimination of transgene expression in a human trial of hemophilia B. Here, we show that the heparin-binding Caspase phosphorylation ability of a given
AAV serotype selleck chemicals does not determine the induction of T-cell responses following intramuscular injection in dogs, and identify multiple epitopes in the AAV capsid protein that are recognized by T cells elicited by AAV injection. We also demonstrate that noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately detect local inflammatory responses following intramuscular rAAV injection in dogs. These studies suggest that pseudotyping rAAV vectors to remove heparin-binding activity will not be sufficient to abrogate immunogenicity, and validate the utility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and MRI for monitoring immune and inflammatory responses following intramuscular injection of rAAV vectors in preclinical studies in dogs. These assays should be incorporated into future human clinical trials of AAV gene therapy to monitor immune responses.”
“Background. Studies of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown that they do not perform well in set-shifting tasks but little is known about the neurobiological correlates of this aspect
of executive function. JNK-IN-8 in vivo The aim of this study was to measure serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and to establish whether set-shifting difficulties are present in people with current AN and in those recovered from AN, and whether serum BDNF concentrations are correlated with set-shifting ability.\n\nMethod. Serum BDNF concentrations were measured in 29 women with current AN (AN group), 18 women who had recovered from AN (ANRec group) and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC group). Set-shifting was measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Eating-related psychopathology and depressive, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology were evaluated using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) respectively.\n\nResults. Serum BDNF concentrations (mean +/- S.D.
These results indicate that ubiquitin binding
by the CUE domain promotes Vps9 function in endolysosomal membrane trafficking via promotion of localization.”
“Background: Women often enter preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment following traumatic reproductive and genetic histories, the detrimental psychological effects of which are known to be long lasting in some cases. In addition, attempting IVF with PGD requires an in-depth understanding of the aspects of the technology. The level of information that is required and retained by women entering treatment is important for clinicians to understand. To date, neither of these issues has been explored empirically. To address this, we assessed mood and information-seeking behavior in a sample of women entering PGD.\n\nMethods: Fifty women entering SB273005 datasheet PGD treatment completed self-administered questionnaires
that assessed anxiety, depression, knowledge of technical aspects of PGD, expectancy of establishing a pregnancy and unmet information needs.\n\nResults: Anxiety selleckchem and depression rates were similar to normal population data. State anxiety was associated with degree of financial worry [beta = 0.36, t = 2.60, P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.23], and living in an inner metropolitan area (beta = 0.30, P = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.32-10.81). Unmet information needs were positively
associated with women’s education (beta = 0.97, P = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.22-1.73). Lastly, expectancy of establishing a pregnancy was above that of what clinicians provide as realistic PGD pregnancy chances and, unexpectedly, was also associated with degree of financial worry (beta = 0.36, P = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.07-0.56).\n\nConclusions: Women entering PGD are emotionally well adjusted although the financial SN-38 supplier costs associated with PGD are associated with increases in anxiety. The study is limited by its small sample size and the fact that partners were not assessed.”
“Several configurations and techniques have been described to fashion an ileal pouch during the performance of a restorative proctectomy or proctocolectomy with ileo-anal anastomosis.\n\nIn this article, we describe a simplified J-pouch construction technique which is designed to avoid unnecessary enterotomies, facilitate the subsequent ileo-anal anastomosis and reduce potential contamination to the pelvis.”
“Objectives: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) were shown to be of prognostic significance in gynecological cancers. Bone marrow aspiration is less accepted by patients compared with blood drawing.
Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 126 clinicians at 24 family/internal medicine practices completed surveys in which they listed and rated the magnitude
of colonoscopy and PSA testing benefits and harms for a hypothetical 70-year-old male patient and then estimated the likelihood that these tests would cause harm and lengthen the life of 100 similar men in the next 10 years. We tested the hypothesis that the availability heuristic would explain the association of screening test to perceived likelihood of benefit/harm and a competing hypothesis that clinicians’ gist of screening tests as good or bad would mediate this association. Results. Clinicians perceived PSA testing to have a greater likelihood of harm and a lower likelihood of lengthening life relative to colonoscopy. Consistent with our GTPL8918 gist hypothesis, these associations were mediated by clinicians’ gist of screening (balance of perceived benefits to perceived harms). Limitations. Generalizability beyond academic clinicians remains to be established. Conclusions. Targeting clinicians’ gist of screening, for example through graphical displays that allow clinicians to make gist-based
relative magnitude comparisons, may influence their risk perception and possibly reduce overrecommendation of screening.”
“Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a valuable model organism in reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. The purpose of this experiment is to assess the response of medaka FDA-approved Drug Library supplier to aquatic estrogen exposure over the course of 1 year. Each week, three pairs C59 ic50 of adult male medaka were exposed separately for 4 days (100% static renewal daily) to 17 beta-estradiol at a nominal level of 25 mu g/l, with a fourth pair of fish exposed separately to an ethanol control. Vitellogenin (VTG) induction was observed each week, with hepatic and plasma VTG levels significantly higher (P < 0.001) than reported for ethanol control specimens. A significant (P < 0.001) increasing trend was
observed for plasma VTG results over the duration of the study, whereas a decreasing trend (P = 0.030) of hepatic VTG was evident. A Durbin-Watson test, however, did not demonstrate any serial autocorrelation of hepatic (d = 1.180) or plasma (d = 1.311) VTG levels over the duration of the study. Time-series transformations of the hepatic and plasma VTG data did not reveal any significant seasonal or behavioral patterns. However, significant intermittent peaks in VTG production were observed in both tissue types during the study. These data indicate that some consideration must be taken to time long-term medaka exposures (> 20 weeks) in order to eliminate any influence of cyclic changes on plasma VTG response. Alternatively, hepatic cytosolic measurement of VTG appears to show a more sensitive response to aquatic estrogen exposure.
“BACKGROUND: To investigate
Etomoxir manufacturer natural aflatoxin occurrence, a total of 180 samples of different foods widely consumed in Tunisia were analysed by an in-house-validated high-performance liquid chromatography method including affinity column clean-up and post-column bromination techniques.\n\nRESULTS: The method used appeared to be rapid, selective and reproducible, and its performances were established. Detection limits were 0.05 ng g(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 0.025 ng g(-1) for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2. Aflatoxins were detected in all investigated commodities except rice, with an overall contamination frequency of 34.4% and concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 40.6 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 was found in all contaminated samples. Sorghum, spices and nuts were most contaminated.\n\nCONCLUSION: This study has provided an effective analytical method for the reliable determination of aflatoxins in food samples. Over one-third of the samples investigated were contaminated with
aflatoxins. Sorghum, spices and nuts were most contaminated, whereas rice showed no contamination. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Aim\n\nThis systematic review aimed to compare the validity, reliability, evaluative validity, and clinical utility of upper limb activity measures for children aged 5 to 16 years with congenital hemiplegia.\n\nMethod\n\nElectronic databases were searched to identify assessments GSK923295 that measure upper limb activity available for use and for which published validity and reliability data for the population are obtainable. Assessment items were coded according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability DMXAA and Health (ICF) categories to determine if at least 35% of the assessment items fell within the activity component of the ICF. Assessments that met these criteria were included in the review.\n\nResults\n\nThirty-eight
measures were identified, and five met the inclusion criteria. The best measure of unimanual capacity was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function (MUUL); however, the Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE) and the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) could also be considered, depending on the type of information required. The performance-based measure of bimanual upper limb activity in children with hemiplegia with the best psychometric properties was the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA). The ABILHAND-Kids is a parent-report, performance-based questionnaire with excellent clinical utility and psychometric properties.\n\nInterpretation\n\nClinicians may choose to use more than one of these measures to detect changes in unimanual or bimanual upper limb activity.”
“The size-normalised weight (SNW) of planktic foraminifera, a measure of test wall thickness and density, is potentially a valuable palaeo-proxy for marine carbon chemistry.
To assess the mechanism of the action of those triterpenes, intracellular
signals such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappa B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) induced by ethanol were examined.\n\nResults: In vitro, betulin, but not betulinic acid, protected HSCs against ethanol toxicity. However, both betulin and betulinic acid inhibited the production of ROS by HSCs treated with ethanol and inhibited their migration GDC-0068 research buy as well as ethanol-induced TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta 1 production. Betulin and betulinic acid down-regulated ethanol-induced production of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Betulin and betulinic acid, also decreased ethanol-induced activity of MMP-2. In ethanol-induced HSCs, betulin inhibited the activation of the p38 MAPK and the JNK transduction pathways, while betulinic acid inhibited the JNK transduction pathway only. They also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of I kappa B and Smad 3 and attenuated the
activation of TGF-beta 1 and NF kappa B/I kappa B transduction signaling.\n\nConclusion: The results indicated that betulin and betulinic acid inhibited ethanol-induced activation of HSCs on different levels, acting as antioxidants, inhibitors of cytokine production, and inhibitors Screening Library manufacturer of TGF-beta, and NF kappa B/I kappa B transduction signaling. Betulin was also inhibitor of both JNK and p38 MAPK signal transduction, while betulinic acid inhibited only JNK. The remarkable inhibition GSK461364 cell line of several markers of HCS activation makes triterpenes, especially betulin, promising agents for anti-fibrotic combination therapies. (C) 2010 Elsevier
Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The patient’s perspective of how their health affects their function is health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL is poorer in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Few HRQOL studies in SLE patients have focused on African Americans despite an increased disease burden compared with Caucasians. The African American Gullah population of South Carolina has a homogeneous genetic and environmental background and a high prevalence of multi-patient families with SLE. Demographics, medical history, and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) were measured within a cohort of Gullah SLE cases and related controls. Compared with related controls (n = 37), cases (n = 89) had a lower Physical Component Summary (PCS, 41.8 vs. 52.3, p < 0.01), but not Mental Component Summary (MCS, 55.0 vs. 56.0, p = 0.70). The difference in PCS was no longer significant upon adjustment for working status, disability, and medical conditions. None of the 11 SLE American College of Rheumatology criteria, disease duration, or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index were associated with either PCS or MCS.
The phosphorylation of the motif-containing peptides has been validated by the in vitro kinase assays coupled with MS analysis. The differential regulation of phosphorylation by ethylene is substantiated by Western dot blot analysis. Taken together, these. results suggest that ethylene signals may be transduced by a phosphor-relay from receptors to transcriptional events via both ein2-dependent and -independent pathways.”
“This work takes a simple phenomenological approach to the questions of when, how, and why a brittle polymer glass turns ductile and vice versa. Perceiving a polymer glass as a hybrid, we recognize that both
the primary structure formed by van der Waals forces (network 1) and chain network (i.e., the vitrified entanglement network) (network 2) must be accounted LBH589 nmr for in any discussion of the mechanical responses. To show the benefit of this viewpoint, we first carried out well-defined melt-stretching experiments on four common polymer glasses (PS, PMMA, SAN, and PC) in a systematic way either at a fixed Hencky strain rate to a given degree of stretching at several temperatures or at a given temperature to different levels of stretching using the same Hencky rate. Then we attempted to preserve the effect of melt-stretching on the chain network structure by rapid thermal quenching. Subsequent room-temperature tensile
extension of these melt-stretched amorphous polymers reveals something universal: (a) along the direction of the melt-stretching, the brittle glasses (PS, PMMA, and SAN) all become completely ductile; (b) perpendicular LY333531 clinical trial to the melt-stretching Galardin in vitro direction, the ductile glass (PC) becomes brittle at room temperature. We suggest that the
transformations (from brittle to ductile or ductile to brittle) arise from either geometric condensation or dilation of load bearing strands in the chain network due to the melt-stretching. Regarding a polymer glass as a structural hybrid, we also explored two other cases where the ductile PC becomes brittle at room temperature: (1) upon aging near the glass transition temperature; (2) when blended with PC of sufficiently low molecular weight. These results indicate that (i) the strengthening of the primary structure by aging can raise the failure stress sigma* to a level too high for the chain network to sustain and (ii) the PC blend becomes brittle upon weakening the chain network by dilution with short chains.”
“There continues to remain uncertainty regarding the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs medical therapy in patients with stable angina. We therefore performed a systematic review and study-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of patients with stable angina comparing PCI vs medical therapy for each of the following individual outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and angina relief.
“Mlo is a plant-specific gene family, which is known to show stress responses invarious plants To reveal the
genetic characteristics of the Mlo family in wheat, we isolated wheat Mlo members from a database and studied their expression in young shoots and roots under salt and osmotic stress conditions In an in silico investigation, we identified seven Mlo members in wheat and named them TaMlo 1 similar to TaMlo 7 None of the wheat Mlo showed significant induction or reduction of their expression under salt or osmotic stress, but organ-specific expression was observed in several TaMlo members TaMlo 1, TaMlo 2, and TaMlo 5 were constitutively expressed in both shoots and roots, but TaMlo 3 and TaMlo 4 showed root-specific expression, and TaMlo 7
showed dominant expression in shoots TaMlo 6 was weakly expressed Fosbretabulin concentration in both shoots and roots Phylogenetic analysis classified the plant Mlo members into six classes, four of them were comprised of angiosperm Mlo members, and the remaining two consisted of fern and moss Mlo members The seven wheat Mlo members were classified into four angiosperm Mlo classes, similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the formation of each of the Mlo classes preceded the divergence of dicots and monocots The differentiation of the expressional patterns among the seven TaMlo members was not related to their phylogenetic classification This result suggested that the organ specific expression of individual Mlo members occurred relatively recently FDA-approved Drug Library in their evolution”
“Muscular dystrophies are a group of diseases that primarily affect striated muscle and are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle strength and integrity. Major forms of muscular dystrophies are caused by the abnormalities of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) that plays crucial roles as a structural unit and scaffolds for signaling AZD7762 molecules at the sarcolemma. alpha-Dystrobrevin is a component of the DGC and directly associates with dystrophin.
alpha-Dystrobrevin also binds to intermediate filaments as well as syntrophin, a modular adaptor protein thought to be involved in signaling. Although no muscular dystrophy has been associated within mutations of the alpha-dystrobrevin gene, emerging findings suggest potential significance of alpha-dystrobrevin in striated muscle. This review addresses the functional role of alpha-dystrobrevin in muscle as well as its possible implication for muscular dystrophy.”
“The ability to position a sharp probe in close proximity to a sample while the surface is illuminated by synchrotron x-rays opens a path to localized spectroscopy and imaging with chemical and magnetic contrast. We have employed a scanning tunneling microscope for the local study of synchrotron x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of micron-sized NiFe rings. Spectra have been obtained by an insulator-coated tip positioned about 200 nm over the sample surface.
Long-term lamivudine administration improved liver function dramatically despite repeated treatment for HCC. His Child-Pugh score was 9 points at start of lamivudine treatment, improving to 5 points after 1 year. His indocyanine green at 15 min after injection test score was 48% before lamivudine treatment, improving to 22% after 2 years and to 5% after 4 years. Radiofrequency ablation controlled the HCC foci and maintained his
liver function. In April 2009, abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor thrombus CAL-101 in vitro in the right portal vein. Since his indocyanine green test results had improved to less than 10%, we performed a right hepatectomy, which was successful. To our knowledge, there have been no documented reports of patients undergoing successful
right hepatectomy for HCC arising from decompensated cirrhosis. The findings observed in our patient indicate the importance of nucleoside analogs for CYT387 nmr treating HBV-related HCC. (C) 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.”
“We describe a previously unreported condition of severe, recurrent lupus enteritis accompanied with severe hypocomplementemia as the initial and only presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus should be suspected in any patient with computed tomography findings of enteral vasculitis or ischemic enteritis, even without lupus-related symptoms or signs; C3/C4 levels may be helpful in the differential diagnosis. If the symptoms do not improve after medical treatment, such as using steroid or cyclophosphamide pulse therapy, or necrosis and perforation of the intestines are highly suspected, surgical selleckchem intervention should be considered. Copyright (C) 2011, Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was
to investigate the effects of olanzapine on growth inhibition as well as autophagy in glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of both LN229 and T98 glioma cells, measured by MTT assay, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, apoptosis of both cells was significantly increased with the treatment of olanzapine as evidenced by increased Bcl-2 expression, Hoechst 33258 staining and annexinV-FITC/PI staining. Olanzapine treatment also enhanced activation of autophagy with increased expression of LC3-II, expression of protein p62, a substrate of autophagy, being decreased. The growth inhibition by olanzapine in both glioma cell lines could be blocked by co-treatment with 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor. Furthermore, olanzapine effectively blocked the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of LN229 glioma cells in vivo. The increased level of protein LC3-II and decreased level of p62 followed by a decreased level of Bcl-2, suggesting that autophagy may contribute to apoptosis.