Early studies demonstrated that Kupffer cells can be identified by their ability to phagocytose a variety of tracer substances, BLZ945 molecular weight including carbon, India ink, or latex microspheres [[12, 15, 21, 26, 31, 32]], and also by their immunoreactivity to the F4/80 antibody [21, 22]. The use of latex microspheres of different diameters in the present study demonstrated that Kupffer cells could be labelled specifically with larger (0.2 μm) microspheres, while smaller microspheres (0.02 μm) labelled both Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, as has been demonstrated AC220 price previously . Previous investigations [6, 7] have noted that Kupffer cells are more frequently
encountered and also are larger in regions around the portal areas than around the central venules. The present data corroborate this finding in the developing mouse, although the regional differences in the developing mouse liver appear not as great as the regional differences reported for rat liver. Liver
endothelial cells are specialized, with the presence of fenestrations of approximately 100 to 140 nm diameter that appear aggregated into groups that form ‘sieve plates’ [1, 3]. The very sparse nature of a basal lamina beneath the endothelial Nirogacestat order cells, along with the absence of diaphragmatic coverings of the fenestrations, allow for relatively free movement of small molecules between the capillary lumen and the space of Disse abutting the basolateral plasmalemmae of hepatocytes. Interestingly, neither the smaller (0.02 μm) nor the larger (0.2 μm) latex microspheres are detected in hepatocytes after intravascular injection, although they do appear to label endothelial cells. The 100-140 nm fenestrations of the liver endothelial Tenofovir cells are sufficiently large to allow movement of the smaller microspheres from the circulating blood into the space of Disse, and their absence from hepatocytes suggests that the microspheres
either do not reach the space of Disse or are not taken up by the hepatocyte microvillous border within the space of Disse. Electron microscopic studies would be very useful in settling this issue. Development of Kupffer cells in postnatal mice The early postnatal period (from P0 to approximately P21) is a time of active cellular differentiation and development. Counts of cells are difficult to make, because not only are cells migrating and proliferating, but also they are acquiring phenotypic markers that allow their identification. We attempted to gain quantitative estimates not of the absolute numbers of Kupffer cells in liver during the developmental period, but rather the numbers of Kupffer cells relative to numbers of hepatocytes. A conservative approach was taken, counting only those cells labelled by the appropriate immunoreactivity (F4/80 for Kupffer cells; albumin for hepatocytes) that also contained a DAPI labelled nucleus.