40 On the other hand, treatment of the diabetic rats with methano

40 On the other hand, treatment of the diabetic rats with methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii caused reduction in the activity of these enzymes in plasma when compared to the diabetic group. Glucose synthesis in the rat liver and skeletal muscles was XAV-939 chemical structure impaired during diabetes; hence glycogen content of skeletal muscle and

liver markedly decreased in diabetes.41 Insulin is a stimulator of glycogen synthase system. On the other hand, insulin inhibits glycogenolysis and in lack of insulin, glycogenolysis is not under inhibition of insulin and, therefore, glycogen content of the liver decreases. Since alloxan causes selective destruction of beta cells of islets of pancreas resulting in marked decrease in insulin levels, it is rational that glycogen level in tissues decrease as they depend on insulin for influx of glucose.42 Treatment with methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii prevented the depletion of glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. This prevention of depletion of glycogen Adriamycin is possibly due to stimulation of insulin release from beta cells. 43 Further experiments are needed to identify the active components of the root extraction to determine

its mechanism of action. Conclusively, it is evident that methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii root contains antihyperglycemic agents capable of lowering blood glucose level and hypolipidemic effect. All authors have none to declare. Authors are thankful to the department of Biochemistry of Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu and Dr.B.Duraiswamy, Department of pharmacognosy, ooty, Tamil Nadu for their encouragement and technical support in testing the extracts for activity. “
“A physiological condition when blood pressure stands consistently higher than normal magnitudes is referred to as hypertension.1 This physiological event implies extra performance and

also poses serious health risks. Hypertension has been identified and proven to be a major cause of strokes and heart attacks. In addition, science higher blood pressure also results into the devastation of coronary arteries, kidneys, brain and eyes.2 and 3 Target identification events have confirmed the cardinal role in regulation of a variety of physiological events, markedly within the cardiovascular system. Recent advances encompass the concerned studies related to physiological events and messenger systems in which the α-adrenergic receptors are involved.4 and 5 Literature survey reveals development of agonists and antagonists, highly selective for the various subtypes of α-adrenergic receptors and with possible therapeutic values and lesser side effects.6, 7, 8 and 9 The target site selection in alpha-adrenergic receptor was identified from the literature survey pertaining to current work.

2, 1 and 5 μg doses based on total protein Two other groups of m

2, 1 and 5 μg doses based on total protein. Two other groups of mice received 5 μg of GMMA from the Double KO (lpxL1, gna33 KO) OE fHbp mutant or 5 μg GMMA from the Triple KO mutant strain. Control mice were immunised with 5 μg recombinant fHbp ID1 or aluminium hydroxide only. All vaccines were adsorbed on 3 mg/mL Aluminium hydroxide in a 100 μL formulation containing 10 mM Histidine and 0.9 mg/mL

NaCl. Sera were SP600125 supplier stored at −80 °C until use. All animal work was approved by the Italian Animal Ethics Committee (AEC project number 14112011). Anti-fHbp IgG antibody titres were measured by ELISA as previously described [28]. The coating antigen was 1 μg/mL non-lipidated recombinant hexa-Histidine-tagged fHbp ID1 [11]. Serial five-fold dilutions of the serum samples starting at 1:100 were analysed. Secondary antibody was a 1:2000 dilution of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat-anti mouse IgG (Invitrogen, cat, no 62-6522, Lot 437983A). The titre was defined as the extrapolated dilution resulting in absorption of 1 at 405 nm after 30 min of incubation with 1 mg/mL 4-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate (Sigma–Aldrich) diluted in 1 M diethanolamine and 0.5 mM MgCl2, pH 9.8. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) activities were measured as described before [28]. Bacteria were incubated

at 37 °C, 5% CO2 in Mueller–Hinton broth containing 0.25% glucose and 0.02 mM Cytidine-5′-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid sodium salt (Sigma–Aldrich). The cells were washed with Dulbecco’s PBS buffer (Sigma–Aldrich) containing 1% BSA. Each selleck chemicals reaction mixture contained approximately 400 colony-forming units, 20% human complement screened for lack of bactericidal activity against the target strain and serial dilutions of the serum second samples starting at 1:10. Bactericidal titres were defined as the reciprocal extrapolated dilution resulting in 50% killing of bacteria after 60 min incubation at 37 °C compared to the mean number of bacteria in five control reactions

at time 0. For statistical analysis, antibody titres were log 10 transformed. ELISA titres <100 were assigned the value 50, SBA titres <10 were assigned the value 5. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare pairs of values. A probability value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analysis was performed with the Graph Pad Prism software 5.01. Nine group W strains (six carrier and three case isolates) with PorA subtype P1.5,2, collected in Ghana between 2003 and 2007, were screened as candidate GMMA production strains. To identify the isolate with highest GMMA production, gna33 was deleted from all strains. In some isolates, simultaneous deletion of the capsule decreased the GMMA release compared to the gna33 single knock-out (KO). Therefore, we generated gna33 and capsule double KO mutants of the nine W strains and compared GMMA production. These double-mutant strains released two to five-fold higher amounts of GMMA than a representative group W wild type strain ( Fig. 1A).

045 for difference in effects in the meta-regression)


045 for difference in effects in the meta-regression).

There was a large effect (SMD = 0.68, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.87) on strength in the trials that targeted strength, and only a small effect (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55) in those that did not. Therefore, for greater effects on strength, it is suggested that programs target strength by specifically providing weights or other forms of resistance and aiming for an intensity and dose of strength training Doxorubicin as for instance suggested by the ACSM guidelines for healthy adults, ie, 8–10 strength-training exercises, with 8–12 repetitions of each exercise twice a week at an intensity where only 8–12 repetitions can be done without resting ( Haskell et al 2007). This review found a moderate effect of physical activity on balance but only six studies had tested this outcome. Trials in older people suggest that physical activity which includes a high challenge to balance leads to a greater reduction in falls than physical activity that does not provide such a challenge to balance (Sherrington et al 2008). This review does not provide clear evidence on the best way to improve balance in middle-aged

people. Yet as previous work has pointed to the importance of ‘specificity’ in training, ie, people get better at GSK1120212 chemical structure what they practise, it seems likely that the best way to improve balance would be with exercises which involve challenges to balance such as tennis, dancing, tai Adenylyl cyclase chi, exercise to music, and running. The current ACSM guideline for adults

aged under 65 does not mention balance training, whereas the guideline for those over 65 does recommend balance training for those at risk of falls (Haskell et al 2007). The present review provides evidence that balance can be improved in people under 65 and previous work has shown the importance of balance as a risk factor for falls and that balance deteriorates with age. We therefore, suggest that a recommendation that all people undertake physical activities that challenge balance be considered for inclusion in future guidelines. The meta-analysis found a moderate effect of physical activity on endurance (usually measured by walking distance). Endurance has not been clearly identified as a risk factor for falls but it is linked to frailty (Fried and Guralnik 1997) in older adults and is important in maintaining reserve capacity of the cardiovascular system which also deteriorates with increasing age in order to maintain the ability to perform activities of daily living. Again the ACSM guidelines about endurance training are supported by this analysis (Haskell et al 2007).

1Ficus is a large genus of woody trees, shrubs, vines and epiphyt

1Ficus is a large genus of woody trees, shrubs, vines and epiphytes widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres with

about 850 species of which approximately 65 species are found in India. 2 The species, Ficus racemosa Linn. syn. F. glomerata Roxb. (Vern. Gular) is large sized spreading tree commonly known as ‘Cluster-fig’ found throughout the greater part of India. The stem bark is antiseptic, antipyretic and used in the treatment of various skin diseases, ulcers, diabetes, piles, dysentery, asthma, gonorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemoptysis and urinary diseases. Fruits are a good remedy for visceral obstruction and also useful in regulating diarrhea and constipation. 3 A uterine tonic prepared using the aqueous extract of fruits RAD001 purchase was found to show effect similar to oxytocin. 4 Antiulcer, hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities from fruits have been reported. 5 Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, Selleckchem Lapatinib antifungal, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective, hypotensive and various other activities of the leaves have also been evaluated. 6 and 7 A glance at literature revealed the isolation of triterpenoids,

steroids, coumarins and phenolic esters from fruits, latex, leaves, heartwood and stem bark 5 and only one reference reporting the isolation of β-sitosterol from root bark. 8 Since the plant is medicinally important, therefore, the present work with the object to identify the secondary metabolites in the F. racemosa root bark and investigate the antioxidant capacity of root bark and heartwood was undertaken. Melting points were recorded in open glass capillaries in Toshniwal apparatus. The IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu 8400S FTIR spectrometer using KBr pellets. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded at 300 MHz

and 75 MHz respectively on Jeol AL 300 MHz spectrometer found using CDCl3 and DMSO-d6 as solvents and TMS as the internal reference. Mass spectra were recorded on Waters Xevo Q-TOF spectrometer. The fractionation was performed in Chromatographic column using silica gel 60–120 mesh (Merck) and thin layer chromatograms were conducted on Merck silica gel G plates. In general, spots were visualized under UV light as also spraying ceric ammonium sulfate followed by heating at 100 °C. The in vitro antioxidant activity experiments were monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer (Pharmaspec-1700 Shimadzu). Silica gel 60–120 mesh (Merck) was used for column chromatography. Silica gel 60 F254 precoated aluminium sheets (0.2 mm, Merck) were employed for TLC. DPPH was purchased from Himedia while ascorbic acid, phosphate buffer, potassium ferrocyanide and trichloroacetic acid from Sigma Aldrich (India). The botanical material of F. racemosa Linn., Moraceae was collected from University of Rajasthan Campus, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India in March 2010 and authenticated by Herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur where a voucher specimen (No. RUBL 19764) is deposited.

e , at 25 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus with zonal diamete

e., at 25 μg/ml against Staphylococcus. aureus with zonal diameter of 14 mm. In the same way our isolated Aspergillus sp.,

showed efficient antimicrobial activity using ethyl acetate crude extract at very low concentrations of 10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg and 40 μg, where in previous literature the efficiency was recorded till 150 μg. 5 Hence we would like to conclude that the isolates are showing high biological activity which can be further studied by purification and compound isolation. All authors have none to declare. The Coauthors are sincerely thankful to Dr. A. Krishna Satya, Assistant Professor, Coordinator (DBT-BIF CENTER), Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University for providing all the necessary facilities learn more and support during this work. “
“Ghaziabad is a district of Uttar Pradesh www.selleckchem.com/products/fg-4592.html in India, which is one of the largest industrials area. In the vicinity of industries, many medicinal plants are growing.

Due to heavy industrialization, plants are bound to absorb industrial polluted water, which adversely effects their growth, quality and therapeutic values. After absorbing the polluted water of industries their growth becomes stunted and their medicinal value also get reduced. These plants are binge used as such in medicine and for other purposes. The manufacturing industries are facing a constant problem for shortage of genuine and good quality raw materials. It is therefore essential to ascertain the quality of medicinal plants material before it is employed for the preparation of drugs. Histo-pharmacognostical study is a key factor, plays

a very important role in determination of authentication, purity and quality of crude plant drugs or their parts. The effluent was analysed by APHA, 1981.1 For anatomical studies 3rd internode of chenopodium was collected from both the sites non-polluted (ALTT Centre, Ghaziabad, India) as well as polluted (Bicycle Industry, Ghaziabad) and studied according to Metacalf and Chalk, 19502 were consulted; for chemical analysis Johanson, 1940,3 Youngken, 1951,4 Cromwell, 19555 & Trease and Evans, 19836 isothipendyl were followed. TLC was done according to the WHO, Geneva, 1998.7 The effluent was analysed and the results are given in Table 1. The plant is an erect or ascending, green or reddish, herb, upto 3.50 m in height. Stem is angular, rarely slender often striped green red or purple in non-polluted areas, whereas in polluted areas, stem is purple or red in colour. Leaves in non-polluted areas are variable in size, shape and dark green in colour. These are rhomboid, deltoid to lanceolate, upper entire, lower toothed or regularly lobed; petioles long slender, often equal or longer than the blade, petiole is 10–15 cm long; leaf is 1.30–4.00 × 5.00–7.54 cm2. But in case of polluted area the colour of leaves is yellow green with white patches, petiole is 4–6 cm long and leaf is 1.50–3.50 × 4.00–6.50 cm.

3 The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) categorizes o

3 The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) categorizes oral medications into four groups on the basis of their solubility and permeability characteristics.4 The use of pro-drugs, salt formation, and micronization, preparation of solid dispersions with soluble polymers or conversion of the crystalline drug to the amorphous form have all been suggested and used. The drug can be dispersed molecularly in amorphous particles (clusters) or in crystalline particles.5 The amorphous state is characterized Vorinostat by the absence of the long-range, three-dimensional molecular order characteristic of the crystalline state. From a practical standpoint,

an amorphous material can be obtained in two ways: (i) by cooling the molten liquid until the molecular mobility is “frozen in,” thus producing the glass and (ii) by gradually inducing defects in the crystal until the amorphous form is attained. At industrial scale amorphous solid dispersions can be prepared by processes such as fusion method, rapid solvent evaporation method (spray drying, vacuum drying, freeze drying) and spray congealing method. However, they may not be amenable to conventional ABT-199 clinical trial dosage form manufacturing processes due to the typical soft, tacky nature and sensitivity to stress as a trigger for instability. The salient features for design of solid dispersions would include judicious selection of carrier,

drug-carrier ratio and understanding the drug release mechanism from matrix. The thermal, chemical and mechanical stress applied during processing can spontaneously induce the recrystallization process. In the changing paradigm of drug discovery, amorphization of drug provides an attractive option for overcoming solubility limitations for ‘difficult to deliver’ drugs. Accompanied with a molecular level understanding of amorphous systems, we can design systems

with predictable stability and performance. Of these approaches, amorphous materials are attractive as they are broadly applicable Liothyronine Sodium and fit the generic criteria established for good formulation approaches.6 ASD is broadly applicable to acidic, basic, neutral, and zwitterionic drugs.7 The characterization of amorphous solids differs from that for crystalline solids. It is customary to characterize an amorphous material both below and above the glass transition temperature, i.e., both as the frozen solid and as the supercooled viscous liquid. The physical characterization of amorphous solids utilizes a wide range of techniques and offers several types of information.15 Powder X-ray diffraction can be used to qualitatively detect material with long-range order.16 Sharper diffraction peaks indicate more crystalline material. Diffraction techniques are perhaps the most definitive method of detecting and quantifying molecular order in any system, and conventional, wide-angle and small-angle diffraction techniques have all been used to study order in systems of pharmaceutical relevance.

They are also responsible for recording vital events, referral of

They are also responsible for recording vital events, referral of severely sick children and mothers, and collecting health information about diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections and breast feeding and for family planning counseling and services, etc. Our study was conducted in the MCH-FP

intervention area and the study vaccines were distributed through the FSCs. Diarrhoea cases in the MCH-FP area are treated at home by a trained mother in each ‘bari’ (cluster of houses) called ‘bari mother’ through use of oral rehydration solution (ORS). CHRWs supervise the bari mothers and provide ORS. More severe cases ABT-888 nmr are referred to the hospital by the bari mothers. Patients with diarrhoea are provided free treatment by the ICDDR,B hospital in Matlab or at the Community Treatment Centre at Nayergaon where there are an inpatient facilities. The other three sub-centres do not have inpatient facilities. The Matlab hospital treats about 12,000 to 15,000 diarrhoea patients each year and the Nayergaon Centre treats about 800–1000 diarrhoea patients each year. Because of the long standing relationship of the ICDDR,B with the community, and because these centres are known to provide high quality care to patients with diarrhoea, nearly all patients with severe diarrhoea living in the HDSS area (as well as the surrounding areas) come to an ICDDR,B

facility when they have severe diarrhoea. The clinical trial was part of an Asian study (Bangladesh and Vietnam) and was conducted from March 2007 to March 2009. Eligible children were identified through L-NAME HCl Matlab HDSS database Selleckchem Docetaxel [21].

A few days after birth field workers hired for this study from the community briefed all mothers about this rotavirus vaccine study. They used a brief information sheet containing the basic information regarding the study vaccine. The information provided to the mothers earlier helped them in understanding the contents of the long consent form in giving consent during enrollment. Healthy infants between 4 and 12 weeks of age were eligible for enrollment and were randomly assigned 1:1 ratio to receive either three oral doses of PRV or placebo at approximately 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks of age along with other routine vaccines (oral poliovirus vaccine [OPV], Bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG], diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis [DTPw] and hepatitis B [HepB]) of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule. Vaccination was organized at 41 fixed-site clinics twice/month. Twelve field-workers routinely visited study participants at their homes for nearly two years as part of the safety and efficacy follow-up. Telephone contact was made in case the mothers along with the participants were not available at home due to visit to relatives home for social visit. Field-workers visited all children at 7 days and 14 days after each dose and, subsequently once a month, until the end of the follow-up period.

The pneumococcal capsule is thought to be the main determinant of

The pneumococcal capsule is thought to be the main determinant of carriage prevalence and invasiveness and hence the determinant of prevalence amongst disease isolates [11] and [12]. However, it has been speculated that increases in serotype 19A IPD in particular are perhaps attributable to a capsular switch event after being found associated with a sequence

type (ST), ST695, previously only linked with vaccine serotype 4 [13] and [14]. Other studies have documented increases due to the expansion of multi-drug resistant STs such as ST276 and ST320 [15] and [16]. Thus, it is increasingly important to examine both STs and serotypes involved in IPD to determine the potential effectiveness of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccinations. In September 2006, PCV7 was introduced to the National Health Service childhood immunisation check details schedule in the UK

in a three dose programme at age 2, 4, and 13 months, with a catch-up for those aged up to 2 years. In 2010, 94% of click here the targeted group had received three doses of PCV7 [17]. This study examines trends in serotype and ST distributions prior to PCV7 use in Scotland, adding to existing reports on the pre-vaccine period in Scotland [18] and [19]; the effect of PCV7 on IPD incidence; trends in serotype and ST distribution post-vaccination; and the association between serotype and ST pre- and post-vaccination. The Scottish Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Enhanced Surveillance (SPIDER) database contains all cases of IPD, identified by blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in Scotland from 1999–2010. The serogroup responsible for each case of disease was available for all years; serotype and ST information was available from 2002.

Clinical isolates (from blood or cerebrospinal fluid) of S. pneumoniae were sent to the Scottish Haemophilus, Legionella, Meningococcus and Pneumococcus Reference Laboratory (SHLMPRL) after identification at diagnostic microbiology laboratories. These were grown on Columbia blood agar MTMR9 (Oxoid, UK) at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions using an anaerobic pack (Oxoid, UK) and after a single subculture were stored at −80 °C on Protect beads (M-Tech Diagnostics, UK). Isolates were serotyped by a coagglutination method [20]. Multi-locus sequence typing was performed as described previously [21], [22] and [23]. Epidemiological years from winter of one year to the end of autumn of the next were used ensuring winter seasons were grouped together since IPD predominantly occurs in winter. Serotypes and STs were classified according to their joint occurrence prior to PCV7 use (1999–2005) and emergence post-PCV7 (2006–2010). STs were classified as associated with PCV7 serotypes if they occurred at least once in conjunction with a PCV7 serotype (labelled PCV7-ST); otherwise they were classified as not associated (NonPCV7-ST). STs which only occurred following PCV7 use were classified as PostPCV7-ST.

The conductance was measured subsequent to each addition of the r

The conductance was measured subsequent to each addition of the reagent solution and after thorough stirring for 2 min. A graph of the corrected conductance recordings versus the volume of click here the added titrant was constructed, and the drug–titrant stoichiometric ratio is then determined from the intercept of the two linear segments of the graph. For analysis of Triton tablets (100 mg TB/tablet), tablets were powdered and an accurately weighed portion equivalent to 0.387 g TB was taken and dissolved in 75 mL water. For Imodium capsules (2 mg LOP.HCl/capsule), capsules were accurately weighed

portion equivalent to 0.513 g were mixed with 75 mL water, for both tablets and capsules, shake in a mechanical shaker for about 30 min, and filtered into a 100 mL volumetric flask. The solution was completed to the mark with bi-distilled water and shaken. Different volumes of the solution (1.0–10.0 mL) were taken, and subjected to the conductimetric determination as mentioned above. A series of solutions of molar concentrations

(C) 10−2 mol L−1 selleck kinase inhibitor was prepared for each of LOP.HCl and TB and PTA. The conductances of these solutions were measured at 25 °C, and the specific conductivities (λo) (corrected for the effect of dilution) were calculated and used to obtain the equivalent conductivities (λ) of these solutions. Straight line plots of λ versus √c were all constructed and (λo)LOP, (λo)TB and (λo)PTA were determined from the intercept of the respective line with the λ-axis. The activity coefficients of the ions employed were taken as unity because all the solutions were sufficiently dilute, the values of λo(LOP-PT) and λo(TB-PT) were calculated using Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions. 28The solubility (S) and solubility product (Ksp) values of the ion-associates were calculated using the following equations: S = KS × 1000/λo (ion-associate), Ksp = S2 for 1:1 ion-pairs Ksp = 4

S3 for 1:2 ion-associates Ksp = 27 S4 for 1:3 ion-associates, and Ksp = 256 S5 for 1:4 ion-associateswhere, KS is the specific conductivity of the saturated solution of the ion associate, determined at 25 °C and corrected for the effect of dilution. Such saturated solution was made by stirring a suspension of the solid precipitate in distilled water for 2 h, and then leaving it for 24 h at 25 °C before measuring the conductivities. Conductometric measurements are used, successfully, for the equivalent point determination in titration of systems in which the conductance of the solution varies before, and after the end point. One of the valuable features of the conductance method of titration is that it permits the analysis of the components of a precipitation reaction. In this case, the formation of a precipitate alters the number of ions present in the solution and consequently the conductance varies.

Data on disease associated morbidity, mortality, disability, soci

Data on disease associated morbidity, mortality, disability, socio-economic distribution, and public health burden were analyzed to facilitate prioritization of diseases and potential vaccines [4], [5], [6] and [7]. This evidenced-based exercise enabled the EACIP to recommend priority diseases and priority vaccines

to be added to the immunization schedule. The EACIP submitted these recommendations to the MOH for consideration and further development of China’s current immunization policy and immunization schedule (Table 2). The EACIP presides over or participates in the drafting and review Ku-0059436 nmr of technical guidelines and proposals related to immunization policy, regulation, and disease control programs. Over the years, a number of regulations and technical guidelines have been disseminated by the MOH or the CCDC as formal documents. The public, physicians, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-32765.html and public health doctors can obtain this information from the MOH (http://www.moh.gov.cn) and CCDC (http://www.chinacdc.net.cn) websites. The following sections list the documents developed and reviewed during recent years: Regulations on Management of Vaccine Circulation and Inoculation (2005);

Guideline of Immunization Technique (MOH, 2005). The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Measles, During the Years 2006–2012; Implementation Proposal on Expansion of the Expanded Program for Immunization (MOH, 2007); The EACIP organized and participated in the national immunization coverage reviews in 1988, 1991, and 1994, the national EPI review in 2004, and the national hepatitis B sero-survey in 2006. EACIP experts play an important role in developing the proposals for such surveys. The EACIP members also have provided field supervision of supplemental immunization activities

(SIA), confirmed and certified China’s polio-free status, and recommended mass immunization programs, e.g., provision of hepatitis A and Japanese encephalitis vaccine in earthquake-stricken areas of Sichuan province in 2008 [8]. When requested by the MOH or CCDC, the EACIP participates in developing teaching materials and providing resource persons for different training activities organized by NIP/CCDC and to strengthen staff knowledge and capacity. For example the EACIP developed the training materials for expansion of EPI in 2008, and held national training courses delivered to 1299 trainers at the provincial and prefecture levels. In addition, training courses were held at the provincial, prefecture, county and township levels attended by 434,449 EPI staff. The China EACIP will continue to guide efforts for Chinese EPI development, such as formulating mid-term or long-term development programs, and developing mid-term and long-term working criteria of the MOH’s Healthy China 2020 Plan.