Hence, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Molecular beacon probes will be very useful for the detection of various microbial pathogens in patients in the future. Methods Bacterial strains and mouse infection N40, clone D10/E9, is an infectious B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) isolate. We generated bgp-defective mutant of this strain, NP1.3, by disruption of
the gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette . Both B. burgdorferi strains were grown at 33°C in BSKII medium containing 6% rabbit serum. To conduct the infection studies, immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice were injected subcutaneously at a dose of 5 × 104 spirochetes per mouse. Mice were euthanized GF120918 price after two weeks of infection and tissues harvested for qPCR. UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School is accredited (Accreditation number 000534) by the International Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animals Care (AAALAC International), and the animal protocol used was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at UMDNJ. Purification of B. burgdorferi and mouse genomic DNA Total genomic DNA was isolated from the low passage B. burgdorferi strain N40 grown to a density of 108spirochetes/ml using the protocol we described previously . DNA from mouse tissues was isolated using the previously described protocol  with two modifications. Firstly, PLG-containing
tubes (Qiagen Sciences, MD) were used for phenol and chloroform extraction, since they allow clean separation of the top aqueous layer p38 MAPK inhibitors clinical trials by decantation after centrifugation. Secondly, a final step of passing the DNA through DNA-Easy kit columns was included to obtain good quality DNA for qPCR. Real-time PCR A 222-bp amplicon from recA gene of B. burgdorferi using RecF and RecR primers and a 154-bp
amplicon from mouse nidogen gene using SB-3CT NidoF and NidoR primers (Table 1) were amplified by PCR in 0.2 ml optical tubes, as previously described , using an ABI7700 sequence detector (Applied Biosystems, NJ). Data was processed using the software from the manufacturer. Amplification was performed in 25 μl reaction mixture containing Amplitaq PCR reaction buffer supplemented with 3 mM MgCl2, 500 ng/μl of bovine serum albumin, 250 μM of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), 0.5 μM of each set of primers and 2.5 U of Amplitaq polymerase. Previous work has shown that a single copy of recA and two copies of nidogen gene are present per B. burgdorferi and mouse genomes respectively . Since genome sizes of B. burgdorferi and mouse are 1.5 Mb and 2.5 Gb respectively, 2 ng of B. burgdorferi genomic DNA contains approximately 106 copies of recA gene, while 200 ng of mouse genomic DNA contains approximately 105 copies of nidogen gene. For each amplification reaction, 5 μl of the sample was used to minimize the variation due to pipetting error. Molecular beacons design Molecular beacons probes were designed to hybridize to the recA and the nidogen gene amplicons using the previously described strategies .