Bar = 40 μm; Bar = 100 μm. (SA+EA) presence of brownish yeast-like cells pericycle regions of the roots. Bar = 100 μm. The root samples were stain with check details tryptophan blue (0.8%). In the micrographs, CC = cortex cells; EC = endophyte cell. Antioxidant’s modulation during stress with P. resedanum
and SA The results of antioxidant activities reveal stress modulation in pepper plants in the presence of endophyte as well as SA+endophyte under drought stress. The oxidative stress was promulgated by the imbalance in cellular water potential in control. In non-inoculated control, the total polyphenols were significantly lower than that of EA, SA and SA+EA treated plants. Though, the EA and SA plants had almost similar level of total polyphenol however in SA+EA plants, it was significantly GSK2879552 supplier higher. With immediate advent
of stress conditions for two days, the total polyphenol level dropped down in non-inoculated plants as Compound Library molecular weight compared to other treatments like SA, EA and SA+EA treated plants. After 2 days of stress, endophyte-infested and SA treated plants have significantly higher total polyphenol levels as compared to sole EA and SA treated plants (Figure 5). Similarly, the increased osmotic stress in pepper further deteriorated the total polyphenol levels in control plants under 4 and 8 days of drought stress as compared to EA, SA and SA+EA plants. During high osmotic stress, the endophyte-associated plants maintained the total polyphenol level. We observed no significant Quinapyramine different between EA, SA and SA+EA treated plants after exposure to 8 days of stress period. Figure 5 Influence of drought stress on the antioxidants activities of the pepper plants inoculated with or without endophyte. MDA refers to extent of lipid peroxidation; O2 – refers to superoxide anion. EA = infected with P. resedanum; SA = treated with SA; SA+EA = endophytic fungal associated plants treated with SA. NST, 2-DT, 4-DT and 8-DT represent non-stressed, 2, 4 and 8 days drought stressed plants
respectively. The different letter(s) in each stress period showed significant difference (P<0.05) as evaluated by DMRT. Reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were significantly lower in control plants as compared to EA and SA+EA. The highest level of GSH formation was observed in SA+EA plants than other treatments. Upon osmotic stress, the GSH level reduced sharply in control plants as compared to other treatments (Figure 5). At 4th and 8th day of stress, the control and SA treated plant’s GSH level was lower than that of the EA and SA+EA plants. On 8th day of stress, EA, SA and SA+EA plants were not significantly different in GSH level as compared to control plants. Thus, endophyte-association seems to have counteracted the stress in the presence of SA application. The extent of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) was significantly regulated during the presence of endophytic-fungal association and SA application. The EA and SA+EA plant had lower level of MDA formation as compared control plants.