Such an interaction prevents the Subunit C from participating in

Such an interaction prevents the Subunit C from participating in the assembly of the Vacuolar Subcomplex (V0 Subcomplex) that is required for the formation of the mature V-ATPase on the vacuolar membranes [19]. This significantly delays the proteolytic endosomal degradation of the internalized EGFr that eventually recycles to the

plasma membrane. This extend the EGFr lifespan and increases the EGF dependent/EGFr signalling [20, 21] suggesting that the interaction with the subunit C check details represent an elective function of E5. Conversely, other authors believe that the impairment of V-ATPase and consequent delayed degradation of internalized EGFr is an indirect result of trafficking disruption Selleckchem Repotrectinib and impaired fusion of early endosomes with late acidic endosomes [22, 23]. The pH modulation is very important in the regulation of cell organellar trafficking and function in many cellular strains. In particular intra-melanosomal pH has been indicated as an essential factor for the control of melanin deposition in melanocytes [24]. Melanogenesis is regulated through the modulation of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the melanogenic pathway. Differences in tyrosinase activity of melanocytes from different

skin photo types (Caucasian or Black skin) have been reported [25]. It has also been shown that these differences were not due to variations in tyrosinase abundance or gene activity, but to the regulation of catalytic activity tuclazepam of the enzyme [25]. In fact, near neutral melanosomal pH is optimal for human tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis while melanin production is suppressed in Caucasian melanocytes by low melanosomal pH [24]. Accordingly, tyrosinase mRNA and tyrosinase protein are actually present also in amelanotic melanomas, where no tyrosinase activity and no melanin deposition can be detected [26, 27]. The probable reason of the declined catalytic activity in these cells, where tyrosinase is present in a inactive state, is the low internal pH due to elevated V-ATPase activity consequent to elevated glycolysis and extra-cellular

SIS3 acidification occurring during the metastatic spread. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that substances that act as selective inhibitors of V-ATPase [28, 29] are able to determine the re-activation of tyrosinase and melanogenesis and melanotic reversion of amelanotic melanomas [26]. In the present work we expressed the HPV 16 E5 protein in two lines of human, tyrosinase-positive, amelanotic melanomas with the aim to examine whether the E5 expression could modulate the melanosomal pH and tyrosinase activity. Here we provide evidence that HPV-16 E5 protein inhibits proton pump, causing alkalinisation of endocellular pH, tyrosinase activation, melanin deposition and modulation of sensitivity to dopamine mimetic drugs.

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