To this end, we examined consecutive chest radiographs of elderly

To this end, we examined consecutive chest radiographs of elderly AA and CA women and found that the racial difference in vertebral fracture prevalence was considerably smaller (only 1.3-fold higher in CA women) and not

statistically significant. We then investigated whether this unexpected observation could be explained by differences in medical conditions which lead to osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. Our results suggest that this is not the case. The two races were similar in age, which is a known strong predictor of vertebral fractures. When medical Ceritinib in vitro conditions that may be associated with fractures (Table 1) were added as covariates to regression analyses with vertebral fractures as outcome, and race and age as fixed predictors, the point estimates (coefficients) for race did not change. None of the medical conditions examined had a significant effect in the regression Sunitinib in vitro models or significant interaction with

race. Cancer was present in a higher proportion of CA women. However, that should result in a greater, rather than smaller, difference in the vertebral fracture prevalence between CA and AA women, assuming that some of the fractures are due to malignant causes or to osteoporosis resulting from treatment for malignancy. below The AA group had higher

prevalence of ESRD, but the racial differences in the vertebral fracture prevalence were similar in patients without ESRD and in the whole study sample. We also observed higher prevalence of smoking in the AA subjects. Interestingly, we found greater (albeit not statistically significant) racial difference in the vertebral fracture prevalence among smokers than non-smokers (Fig. 2b). It is possible that this was due to a difference in body weight (lower weight in CA as compared to AA smokers) which was not available in our study. We found grater racial difference in vertebral fracture prevalence (again not statistically significant) in women with history of glucocorticoid use (Fig. 2c). However, we did not have an accurate estimate of the glucocorticoid dose, which makes any conclusion regarding the racial differences in its effect unreliable. We also entertained the possibility that our observation may be due to heterogeneity of our study sample, which included both patients who received their primary care at our institution and those who were referred for tertiary care. We found similar racial differences in vertebral fracture prevalence among patients who were and those who were not receiving primary care at the University of Chicago (Fig. 2d).

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