Nevertheless, these results indicate that the thalamo-striato-cor

Nevertheless, these results indicate that the thalamo-striato-cortical network is involved in the pathophysiology of fatigue in MS and perhaps in central fatigue in general. There are methodological weaknesses in this study regarding the small sample but also the inclusion into the study,

giving a selection of persons with MS who also had heat sensitivity. On the other hand heat sensitivity is common in MS; 60–80% are figures mentioned in scientific reports including our own, which means that the sample taken for this study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical still should be regarded as representative (Flensner et al. 2011). On the other hand, it would of course be interesting to analyze if the magnitude and quality of cognitive dysfunction function in persons with MS differ according to if they are heat sensitive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or not. This would be the scope of further study. We suggest that effect of this selection bias (heat sensitivity) on the results of this study may be that the cognitive dysfunction in our population is worse than in an unselected MS population. In addition, pharmaceutical treatment concerning immunomodulating therapy or psychotropic drugs could have influenced the results. The character of this small

study, being a pilot study to test the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plausibility of central neuronal networks having an impact on cognition, implies that it cannot control for these potential confounders, as such medications are common in an MS population and for ethical reasons hard to stop to improve the study design. Further studies are needed to clarify these issues.

Conclusions The aim of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical current study was to explore if dysfunction of the thalamo-striato-cortical network could be a factor that explains fatigue in MS. The main findings were that MS participants showed altered brain responses in the thalamo-striato-cortical network during performance of a complex working memory task that challenged fatigue and that brain activation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in certain cortical and subcortical areas of the network (the left PPC and the right substantia nigra) was positively correlated to perceived fatigue ratings. Furthermore, MS participants had different functional connectivity between science these fatigue-correlated areas and other nodes in the thalamo-striato-cortical network as compared to controls. In particular, MS participants had stronger cortical-to-cortical and subcortical-to-subcortical connections whereas they had weaker cortical-to-subcortical connections. Thus the findings in the present study indicate that the thalamo-striato-cortical network is involved in the pathophysiology of fatigue in MS, and they provide support for the 5-Fluoracil datasheet theory of central fatigue in MS. However, due to the limited number of participants and the somewhat heterogeneous sample of MS participants these results have to be regarded as tentative, though they might serve as a basis for future studies. Acknowledgments The Swedish Research Council (Grant No.

It had representation from a wide spectrum of relevant constituen

It had representation from a wide spectrum of relevant constituencies (Table 1). They included national organizations involved in health-care policy and research, such

as the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Health and Family Welfare; professional organizations such as the Indian Academy of Paediatrics and the Indian Medical Association; representatives of GoI agencies such as the Child Health Division, Department of Biotechnology, Planning Commission, and the National Regulatory Authority (Drugs Controller General of India); representatives of five State Governments (Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil INK1197 cell line Nadu and Uttar Pradesh); and five independent experts. Although not formal members, representatives of UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World

Bank are invited to attend committee meetings. Care has been taken for members to represent a range of expertise including pediatricians, epidemiologists, public health specialists, infectious disease experts, virologists/microbiologists, vaccinologists, immunisation programme experts, logisticians and regulatory experts. One independent expert is mandated to function as Co-chair of the Everolimus datasheet NTAGI. The NTAGI is essentially a standing committee under the DFW in the MoHFW. As a specially established committee its official administrative position and status within the GoI is unclear, except that it was created by a formal Office Order from MoHFW. The current membership and Terms of Reference (TOR) of the initial NTAGI (2001) are detailed in Table 1 and Table 2. While non-government members are paid expenses to attend meetings, no remuneration is paid to government employees. So far no requirement for members to declare actual or potential conflicts of interest has been defined. However, members have been selected on the basis of a reputation for integrity in addition to expertise. Industry representatives may be invited to present data but they do not

participate in other discussions. The development of a tool to ensure lack of, or to document Carnitine dehydrogenase any specific, conflict of interests is being considered for the future. The first meeting of the NTAGI was on 19 December 2001 with the following objectives: 1. Identification of reasons for declining immunisation coverage. Based on deliberations at this first meeting, it was decided that sub-groups would be established to examine the following specific issues: 1. Operational issues including injection safety. In its early years the NTAGI met infrequently, but currently it meets more often (see below). The Immunisation Division acts as the Modulators Secretariat for scheduling meetings, preparing minutes and taking follow-up actions. The meeting agenda is based on the needs of the Immunisation Division as well as requests from the States.

2012) Social deprivation stress leads to the development of anx

2012). Social deprivation stress leads to the development of anxiety in mice, and this appears to be modulated by reductions in BDNF (Berry et al. 2012). In a cross-sectional study of a healthy population, plasma BDNF levels were negatively associated with somatization, obsessive–compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, and anxiety (Bhang et al. 2012). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical BDNF may also be a modulatory factor in the development of PTSD (Rakofsky et al. 2012). Another NT that appears important in anxiety regulation is nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is increased under conditions of stress in

both animal models and humans (Aloe et al. 1986, 1994, 2002), and appears to be important in resilience to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders (for review see Alleva and Francia 2009). Interestingly, animal models demonstrate that increases in release of NGF are most marked under conditions of stressful behavioral interactions between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical animals, with lesser increases seen under physical restraint stress (Aloe et al. 1986; Branchi et al. 2004; Alleva and Francia 2009). Further evidence suggests that levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the hippocampus are decreased in animals with higher anxiety and lower response to novelty (Perez et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2009) and that early life administration of FGF2 is able to prevent increased

anxiety in later life (Turner et al. 2011). Maternal exercise can lead to increased selleck kinase inhibitor expression of NTs, including VEGF and BDNF, in the PFC of offspring Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that is associated with decreased anxiety (Aksu et al. 2012). Exercise also appears able to protect against the negative effect of maternal deprivation on expression of these NTs (Uysal et al. 2011). Cigarette smoking and nicotine in particular

appear to exert effects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on expression of NTs, although the literature is sparse and heterogeneous. For example, cigarette smoking and repeated nicotine exposure has been associated with decreased expression of BDNF in animal models (Yeom et al. 2005; Tuon et al. 2010). In addition, plasma levels of BDNF are significantly lower in smokers than nonsmokers in human studies, with levels increasing with greater duration of smoking abstinence (Kim et al. 2007; Bhang et al. 2010). However, other results have suggested that nicotine exerts a positive effect on BDNF levels. For example, nicotine administration has been associated with increased levels of BDNF and FGF-2 in animal Endonuclease striatum (Maggio et al. 1997). The neurotrophic augmenting effects of nicotine in this situation is hypothesized to underpin a therapeutic benefit of cholinergic stimulation on Parkinson’s disease by protecting dopaminergic neurons from damage. In a further study, traumatic brain injury revealed a positive effect of chronic cigarette smoking on BDNF expression (Lee et al. 2012). Nicotine exposure has also been associated with significant increases in NGF (French et al.

8% to 21 9%) or the re-assessment period (–8 7% to 16 5%), thus t

8% to 21.9%) or the re-assessment period (–8.7% to 16.5%), thus the between-group differences are smaller than our initial estimates of the smallest clinically important difference. We confirmed that circuit class therapy is a low intensity, long duration type

exercise. While only 28% of the cohort achieved the recommended intensity of exercise (ie, at least 20 minutes at ≥ 50% heart rate reserve), the long duration of the exercise class meant that circuit class therapy did provide sufficient exercise dosage (≥ 300 kcal) for a cardiorespiratory fitness effect for 62% (95% CI 49 to 74%) of the cohort. The American College of Sports Medicine updated their exercise prescription guidelines in 2011 (American College of Sports Medicine 2011) and these new guidelines include the recommendation that low intensity, long duration exercise be used for deconditioned individuals.

It is important to note that Libraries higher intensity Trichostatin A supplier exercise still provides greater fitness benefits (Swain 2005). Feedback from heart rate monitors did not increase the intensity of exercise while receiving the feedback (during the intervention period) or after feedback was removed (during the re-assessment period), but there was a trend GSK1120212 clinical trial towards the experimental group spending more time in the heart rate training zone while receiving the feedback (mean difference 4.8 minutes, 95% CI –1.4 to 10.9). The use of augmented feedback from heart rate monitors has not previously been investigated in neurological populations, although its effectiveness has been shown

in school-aged children (McManus et al 2008). It was observed that our participants understood the feedback quickly (usually within the first few stations in the first intervention class) and utilised the audio rather than the visual feedback (ie, they knew they had to exercise harder when the monitor sounded rather than remembering what heart rate they had to exercise above), and that staff utilised the feedback to guide progression of exercises. The neuromotor, cognitive, and behavioural impairments and significant deconditioning commonly seen in people with traumatic brain injury are the barriers to participation in high intensity exercise. Perhaps the addition of verbal motivation and feedback from the treating physiotherapist is required to complement feedback from the heart rate monitor. The ability of different staff to motivate participants to exercise harder was not controlled in this study and could be the focus of future research. Another interesting observation was the variability in exercise intensity displayed from participants from class-to-class (Figure 2). While some variability is expected, our within-subject variability was more extensive than the variability reported in studies involving able-bodied subjects (Lamberts and Lambert 2009).

Figure 3 Average of logistic function curve with the relation

.. Figure 3 Average of logistic function curve with the relation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) during see more intravenous administration of vehicle (VEH) or melatonin (MEL)

in conscious sham-operated animals and area postrema (APX)-ablated group. … Melatonin-induced alteration of baroreflex is abolished by ablation of area postrema The reflex HR responses, which were elicited by alternate intravenous bolus injections of PE (delta +5 to +60 mmHg) and SNP (delta −5 to −24 mmHg) were similar in both sham and APX groups. In the APX group (Fig. 3), continuous melatonin infusion did not alter the HR responses elicited by PE and SNP (lower Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plateau: 230 ± 9 vs. 233 ± 9 beats/min, and upper plateau: 404 ± 16 vs. 426 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ± 13 beats/min, melatonin vs. vehicle, respectively, Fig. 3). Also, there was no significant change in the range (173 ± 11 vs. 193 ± 8 beats/min, Table 1) or sensitivity (gain: −2.29 ± 0.41 vs. 2.23 ± 0.22 beats/min per mmHg, Table 1) of the reflex. In agreement with the baseline MAP decrease, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MAP50% was reduced in the APX group in comparison with sham group (103 ± 5 vs. 113 ± 4 mmHg, Table 1). After area postrema lesion, melatonin infusion was ineffective to

alter baroreflex control of HR (Fig. 3, Table 1). Discussion The presented data support the central effects of melatonin as they report reduction of both blood pressure and HR after melatonin infusion. We showed that circulating melatonin, acting through the area postrema, reduces baseline pressure and HR and resets baroreceptor reflex control toward lower Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical HR values. On the other hand, ablation of area postrema abolishes melatonin effects on baroreflex and decreases arterial pressure. Pineal gland and its hormone melatonin are well known for modulating circadian biological rhythms. Melatonin is secreted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by pineal gland during the dark period of the day to modulate biological activity of various organs and system through G-protein-coupled membrane-bound

melatonin receptors. A direct effect of melatonin on blood pressure has been described. Adenylyl cyclase Continuous melatonin infusion was effective to reduce blood pressure of hypertensive rats (Kawashima et al. 1984) and hypertensive and normotensive humans (Cagnacci et al. 2005; Simko and Paulis 2007; Grossman et al. 2011). Moreover, an improvement of baroreflex by long-term melatonin treatment in hypertensive rats SHR has been reported (Girouard et al. 2004). Our results indicate that acute infusion of melatonin may reduce blood pressure and HR levels also in normotensive rats. Melatonin receptors are expressed in cardiovascular system (Peliciari-Garcia et al. 2011; Schepelmann et al. 2011) and also in several brain nuclei including area postrema (Weaver et al.

Each run ended with an additional approximately 20-sec eyes open

Each run ended with an additional approximately 20-sec eyes open baseline. Each meditation condition was performed twice. Meditation conditions were presented in random order, but the second instance of each was blocked (i.e., AABBCC). After each run, participants were asked to rate how well they were able to follow the instructions and how much their mind wandered on a scale from 0 to 10. Imaging data acquisition Images were obtained with a Siemens 1.5 Tesla Sonata MRI system (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a standard eight-channel head coil. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical High-resolution

T1-weighted 3D anatomical images were acquired using a magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo sequence (time to repetition [TR] = 2530 msec, time to echo [TE] = 3.34 msec, field of view = 220 mm, matrix size = 192 × 192, slice thickness = 1.2 mm, flip

angle = 8°, with 160 slices). Low-resolution T1-weighted anatomical images were then acquired (TR = 500 TE = 11 msec, field of view = 220 mm, slice thickness = 4 mm, gap = 1 mm, 25 AC-PC aligned axial-oblique slices). Functional image Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acquisition began at the same slice location as the T1 scan. Functional images were acquired using a T2*-weighted gradient-recalled single-shot echo-planar sequence (TR = 2000 msec, TE = 35 msec, flip angle = 90°, bandwidth = Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1446 Hz/pixel, matrix size = 64 × 64, field of view = 220 mm, voxel size = 3.5 mm, interleaved, 210 volumes, after 2 volumes were acquired and automatically discarded). Imaging data preprocessing Images were preprocessed using SPM8 ( Functional images were realigned for motion correction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and resultant parameters were used as regressors of no interest in the fMRI model. Artifact

Detection Tools (ART; was used to identify global mean intensity and motion outliers in the fMRI time series, and any detected outliers were included as regressors of no interest in the fMRI model. The structural image was coregistered to the mean functional image and segmented. All Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical images were Enzalutamide research buy normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template brain using SPM8 unified segmentation normalization (Ashburner and Friston 2005), and smoothed using a 6 mm full width at half-maximum Gaussian Adenosine kernel. General linear model analysis Blood oxygen level-dependent signal was modeled using separate regressors for the conditions: eyes open baseline, active baseline instruction, active baseline, meditation instruction, and meditation. Eyes closed state was included as implicit baseline. Conditions were modeled using a boxcar function convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function, and fit using SPM8′s implementation of the general linear model (GLM). For this analysis, first level maps were generated for loving kindness meditation relative to implicit baseline.

2000), it is not clear if the ECT-related deaths are due to leth

2000), it is not clear if the ECT-related deaths are due to lethal side effects (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia) or comorbid somatic illnesses or anesthetic complications. ECT is administered worldwide under involuntary and guardian consent conditions, ranging from a few percent in USA and Europe 1–3% (Reid et al. 1998; Kramer 1999; Scarano et al. 2000; Bertolin-Guillen et al. 2006; Sundhedsstyrelsen

2011a) to 20–29% (McCall et al. 1992; Muller et al. 1998; Huuhka et al. 2000; Fergusson et al. 2004). Involuntary conditions in the extracted data though cannot be taken Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as directly equivalent to or directly indicative of involuntary (against wish) treatment. In Asia, written informed consent is mainly obtained directly or counter signed

by family members (Alhamad 1999; Chanpattana and Kramer 2004; Chanpattana et al. 2005a; Naqvi and Khan 2005). Consent given by legal bodies varies from 18% in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Scotland (under the Scottish Mental Health Act) (Fergusson et al. 2004) to 60% in Sydney, Australia (by the Mental Health Review Tribunal) (Lamont et al. 2011). Mandatory ECT data reporting is almost nonexistent and found only in a few places (Texas, USA, and Australia) (Reid et al. 1998; Scarano et al. 2000; Wood and Burgess 2003). Likewise legislature regulating practice, such as obligatory anesthesia (Gazdag et al. 2004a), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical obligatory written informed patient consent (Schweder et al. 2011b), ECT licensed facilities (Wood and Burgess 2003), prohibited administered to persons under 16 years of age (Reid et al. 1998), involuntary by order of court or legal body (Fergusson et al. 2004; Lamont et

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al. 2011), is also nonexistent. Implications of findings Worldwide improvement of ECT utilization and practice is needed, alongside Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical development of an international minimal dataset standard applied in all countries. Continuous and mandatory monitoring and use of ECT health registrar reporting systems, taking into account patient confidentiality, would also ultimately reduce our knowledge gaps. This would again contribute to more uniform worldwide ECT Dichloromethane dehalogenase practice, to the best for the patient. Strengths and limitations Strengths of this study are the extensive search strategy, high number of included studies, methodological transparency, and summary of findings table, providing an overview of Abiraterone order contemporary worldwide use of ECT, which has not been undertaken in such detail previously. Limitations of this review are the inclusion of nonrandomized survey/questionnaire studies, based on practitioner accounts of ECT use, influencing the precision of the estimated rates, either to be overestimated or underestimated depending on the accuracy of the source. Seemingly, more accurate are direct reports from individual hospitals studies or national registers.

Discussion Because a quick response to emergency calls for patien

Discussion Because a quick response to emergency calls for patients in a life-threatening conditions is important to improve their survival rate [16], several countries have introduced a priority dispatch system for ambulances [17-24]. On October 1st, 2008, Yokohama, Japan started a

new emergency medical service system that was designed to dispatch ample emergency staff quickly to patients in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a critical condition. The present study aimed to assess the algorithm, which had originally been constructed based on data collected previously from 4,301 cases, prior to the start of the new system [14]. In the new Yokohama system, when the life threat risk as estimated by the logistic model is higher than 10%, the emergency call is categorized as A+. Category A+ targets patients that face a strong possibility of dying. The Emergency Medical Division of the Yokohama Safety Management Bureau reported that under the new emergency system, the mean arrival time of the first responder to the scene for patients categorized as A+ at the moment of the emergency call was approximately one minute Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shorter than that for other patients. Whether the new system improved survival rate from CPA should be evaluated in further studies. Logistic models were applied to construct an algorithm to assess the life threat risk

from the information received in calls to emergency services. The algorithm Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for assessing the life threat risk was constructed according to the type of caller. This is based on a concept that the weight of data obtained from the calls is likely to differ depending on the type of caller. For instance, a call reporting that a patient cannot walk could have different implications when made by nursing home staff compared Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to other types of callers. The life threat risk was estimated synthetically, from observable signs provided by callers to the ambulance system. The model allowed explanatory variables to be recorded as unknown or unconfirmed. This is based on a concept

that information that is unknown Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or unconfirmed is potentially related to the severity of patient’s condition and can be used as a factor in the risk assessment. In the triage program, the patients’ life threat risk was expressed as a percentage. For example, when a call was made by a family member who was in panic, if the patient’s age was 70 years, consciousness not clear and breathing status abnormal, if the patient was lying down and unable to walk, the patients face cyanotic, and Bay 11-7085 sweating unable to be confirmed, then the life threat risk was estimated to be 19.2% by the model. In the Yokohama New Emergency System, patients were categorized as potentially life threatened when the estimated life threat risk was higher than 10%. The cut-off value was determined prior to the start of the system according to the city’s capability of dispatching ample staff, i.e., from a viewpoint on the amount of acceptable false positives, such as overtriage.


For all constructs, the vector induced T cell respon


For all constructs, the vector inhibitors induced T cell responses decreased with time following immunization. Similar results were seen by intracellular cytokine staining assays (data not presented). Responses were primarily mediated by CD8+ T cells, not CD4+ T cells (data not presented). Serum IgG antibody titers induced by immunization with the various AMA1 adenovectors were measured by ELISA and compared against antibodies produced to a recombinant Pichia pastoris produced glycosylated AMA1 protein (residues 25–546) [40] as a reference standard ( Fig. 3b). Antibody 5FU responses were observed 2 weeks following the first adenovector administration for all cell surface associated forms of AMA1, and these responses were effectively boosted by a second administration of adenovector. The adenovector that expressed an intracellular form of AMA1, AMA1-IC, did not induce AMA1-specific serum antibody responses. Adenovector-induced antibody responses were also evaluated in rabbits. Two immunizations of adenovector were administered at an 8-week interval and AMA1-specific serum antibodies were measured 4 weeks after the second dose. AMA1-IC was not included in this analysis as it was a poor inducer of antibody responses

in the murine studies. The results with rabbit sera were similar to those from the murine studies. Specifically, the native glycosylated AMA1 and both glycosylation mutants GM1 and GM2 Selleckchem Venetoclax induced comparable levels of

AMA1-specific serum antibody, with the highest responses induced by adenovectors that expressed native AMA1 and the AMA1-GM2 antigens (Fig. 3c). Since ELISA assays do not provide information on the biological function of antibodies, the ability of the adenovectors to induce functional antibodies capable of inhibiting the invasion of erythrocytes by blood stage forms of P. falciparum was evaluated, using a standardized and highly reproducible parasite GIA [41]. Initially, GIA was performed until using a final concentration of 2.5 mg/ml of purified IgG from immunized rabbits. This concentration of IgG is approximately one-quarter of that in human blood. Previous results from other experiments in rabbits, also performed at the GIA Reference Center utilizing the same assay and standardized operating procedures, yielded approximately 90% inhibition of parasite growth following immunization with recombinant AMA1 protein (80 mg) formulated in alum +CpG or ISA720. Very high titers of functional antibodies were induced in rabbits by the adenovectors expressing AMA1. Greater than 99% inhibition was achieved following vaccination with AdAMA1 in this standard assay. The native and GM2 versions of AMA1 induced equally high levels of functional antibodies ( Fig. 4a) and total antibody by ELISA ( Fig. 4b).

The developing brain may be directly influenced via hemodynamic c

The developing brain may be directly influenced via hemodynamic changes at a time of very immature autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, or Depsipeptide indirectly through altered development of sleep/wake state architecture and programming of stress systems. Importantly, immature neurons are more sensitive to neurotoxic environmental influences.13 Pain in rat pups has been found to impact brain development adversely.37,49 However, until recently, relationships between pain and brain development in preterm infants were speculative. Recently Grunau, Miller, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and colleagues specifically addressed in preterm infants

whether neonatal procedural pain/stress impacts the developing brain. In a longitudinal study, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical infants born very preterm at 24–32 weeks’ gestation underwent advanced MRI brain imaging early in their NICU stay and again at term-equivalent age.35 Higher pain-related stress quantified as the number of skin-breaking procedures (including tube insertions) from birth to term-equivalent age was associated with poorer neonatal brain development, after adjusting for multiple clinical confounding factors such as GA at birth, duration of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mechanical

ventilation, confirmed infections, surgeries, analgesia, and sedation exposure. Greater exposure to procedural pain-related stress was associated with reduced development of white matter (indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA)) and subcortical gray matter (measured by N-acetylaspartate-to-choline ratio (NAA/choline)—a marker of metabolism and density). Reduced FA was predicted by early pain prior to the first brain scan, whereas lower NAA/choline

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was predicted by pain exposure throughout the neonatal course. This pattern of results suggested a primary and early effect on subcortical structures with secondary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical white matter changes. The potential for procedural stress in the NICU to affect the brain adversely was demonstrated long ago, in a study reporting that endotracheal suctioning altered neonatal cerebral blood flow.2 Recently, these using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure electrical activity or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine cerebral blood flow changes, studies of cortical activity during procedures in the NICU have shown that procedures evoke responses in the cerebral cortex.14,38,39,50,51 Important differences in cortical response to touch and pain in preterm infants are evident in preterm compared to full-term neonates. In preterms, non-specific neuronal bursts of EEG activity widely dispersed in the brain were observed rather than a localized somatosensory response displayed by full-term infants.14 The findings of this study suggest a widespread immature EEG response, confirming that the preterm neonatal brain is more sensitive, consistent with poor capacity to distinguish tactile from nociceptive stimulation.