Before orchiectomy, blood samples were taken to measure serum con

Before orchiectomy, blood samples were taken to measure serum concentrations of testosterone (T2) by a solid-phase RIA. Data were analysed with the mixed procedure of SAS. Toms castrated during IL had higher sperm plasma membrane integrity and better sperm morphology compared to toms castrated during DL (69.0 +/- 2.7 vs 60.6 +/- 2.1, p<0.01; 45.9 +/- 2.5 vs 35.9 +/- 3.4; p<0.02; respectively) and tended to have higher sperm motility and total number of sperm cells compared to toms castrated during DL (56.3 +/- 2.8 vs 47.3 +/- 3.7, p<0.06; 13.8 +/- 1.4 vs 10.0 +/- 1.8, p<0.09). However, velocity, acrosome integrity and

serum testosterone concentrations were similar between both groups (3.5 +/- 0.1 vs 3.4 +/- 0.1, p>0.6; 45.8 +/- 3.3 vs 44.0 +/- 4.0, p>0.72; 0.76 +/- 0.15 vs 0.59 +/- 0.19, p>0.51; respectively). In conclusion, natural photoperiod Tozasertib induces seasonal changes in sperm quality with a moderate variation in serum

testosterone concentrations.”
“To analyze the AZD8055 molecular weight presence of various histone modifications in ejaculated human spermatozoa

In this prospective study, seminal ejaculates from 39 normozoospermic individuals were evaluated for semen analysis and the presence of histone modifications in isolated nuclei.

We observed heterogeneous presence of histone methylation in normal mature human sperm. We observed that 12 to 30 % of the nuclei of normal sperm contain a heterogeneous distribution of the marks H3K4Me1, H3K9Me2, H3K4Me3, H3K79Me2, and H3K36Me3. Moreover, the presence of these marks is higher in the poor motile fraction of the ejaculate, which is associated with poor morphology and functional quality. In contrast, we did not observe histone acetylation (H3K4Ac and H4K5Ac) in normal or abnormal mature human sperm

Defects in the process of spermatogenesis may alter

the correct epigenetic programing in mature sperm. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of these findings in human infertility.”
“Capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP) is recognized as one of the global standard first-line chemotherapy regimens for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). Sapanisertib nmr Recent multinational phase III trials in mGC have been conducted with XP as the control arm, although no data on XP in Japanese patients with mGC have been published to date. The AVAGAST (XP +/- A bevacizumab in mGC) and ToGA (XP +/- A trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]-positive mGC) studies were the first two global studies including Japanese mGC patients. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of XP in Japanese mGC patients, using AVAGAST and ToGA subgroup data.

Main Outcome Measure: Facial function after 1 postoperative year

Main Outcome Measure: Facial function after 1 postoperative year. Independent variables included patient demographics,

presenting symptoms, tumor size and location, and serial postoperative function within the first year.

Results: Among 281 patients with postoperative facial weakness, 81% improved to a House-Brackmann (HB) III or better (good outcome) after 12 months of recovery, whereas 12% remained HB IV or worse (poor outcome). For patients starting with HB V or VI function, recovery rate was the most reliable predictor of poor outcome after 1 year. The resulting predictive model using rate of functional improvement as the independent variable was found to anticipate poor outcome before 1 year in more than LXH254 50% of cases with 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Although associated with facial nerve outcome, tumor size, tumor vascularity, selleck chemicals preoperative facial function, age at surgery, and ability to stimulate the nerve intraoperatively did not contribute significantly to the predictive model.

Conclusion: The rate of recovery within the first postoperative year serves as a useful early predictor of long-term facial nerve function. We present a novel predictive model using rate of recovery that can be used to select candidates

for reanimation surgery sooner than the traditional waiting period of 1 year, potentially improving the outcome of this intervention.”
“Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe an in utero management strategy for fetuses with immune-mediated 28 or 38 atrioventricular (AV) block.

Methods and results. The management strategy as applied to 29 fetuses consisted of three parts. First, using fetal echocardiography and obstetrical ultrasound, we assessed fetal heart rate (FHR), heart failure, growth and a modified biophysical profile score (BPS) assessing fetal movement, breathing and tone. Second, we treated all fetuses with transplacental dexamethasone, adding terbutaline if the FHR was < 56 bpm. Digoxin and/or intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) was added for progressive fetal heart failure. Third, we delivered

fetuses by cesarean section for specific indications that included abnormal BPS, maternal/fetal conditions, progression of heart failure, or term pregnancy. We assessed perinatal survival, predictors of delivery and maternal/fetal complications in 29 fetuses with 3 degrees (n = 23) or 2 degrees (n = 6) AV block. There were no fetal deaths. In utero therapy included dexamethasone (n = 29), terbutaline (n = 13), digoxin (n = 3) and/or IVIG (n = 1). Delivery indications included term gestation (66%), fetal/maternal condition (14%), low BPS (10%) and progression of fetal heart failure (10%). An abnormal BPS correlated with urgent delivery.

Conclusion. These results suggest that applying this specific management strategy that begins in utero can improve perinatal outcome of immune-mediated AV block.”

These nanoparticles comprise a promising option to enhance the

These nanoparticles comprise a promising option to enhance the

response of carcinoma cells to therapy with ionising irradiation.”
“Aim of the study: The introduction of a paediatric Medical Emergency Team (pMET) was accompanied by integration of weekly in situ simulation team training into routine clinical practice. On a rotational basis, all key ward staff participated in team training, which focused on recognition of the deteriorating child, teamwork and early consultant review of patients with evolving critical illness. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of regular team training on click here the hospital response to deteriorating in-patients and subsequent patient outcome.

Methods: Prospective cohort study of all deteriorating in-patients of a tertiary paediatric hospital requiring admission to paediatric intensive care (PICU) the year before, and after, the introduction of pMET and concurrent team training.

Results: Deteriorating patients were: recognised more promptly (before/after pMET: median time 4/1.5 h, p < 0.001), more

often reviewed by consultants (45%/76%, p = 0.004), more often transferred to high dependency care (18%/37%, p = 0.021) and more rapidly escalated to intensive care (median time 10.5/5 h, p = 0.024). selleck chemical These improved responses by ward staff extended beyond direct involvement of pMET.

There was a trend towards fewer PICU admissions, reduced level of sickness Selleckchem LY2606368 at the time of PICU admission, reduced length of PICU stay and reduced PICU mortality. Introduction of pMET coincided with significantly reduced hospital mortality (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These results indicate that lessons learnt by ward staff during regular in situ team training led to significantly improved recognition and management of deteriorating

in-patients with evolving critical illness. Integration of in situ simulation team training in clinical care has potential applications beyond paediatrics. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Enterococci are uncommon etiologic agents of central nervous system infections. We describe a case of nosocomial encephalitis and concurrent cerebellitis associated with Enterococcus faecium in a man, with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, who underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Brain magnetic resonance images showed lesions in the bihemispheral cerebellar cortex with swelling and several small lesions in both cerebral hemispheres. The blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium can cause encephalitis and concurrent cerebellitis in an immunocompromised patient who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

Twelve different subjects participated in the four experiments

Twelve different subjects participated in the four experiments.

Results. For experiments 1 and 2, decreased centre of foot pressure displacements were observed in the Vision relative to the No vision and in the Tactile stimulation relative to the No tactile stimulation condition. For experiments 3 and 4, more accurate and more consistent repositioning performances were observed

in the Vision relative to the No vision and in the Tactile stimulation relative to the No tactile stimulation condition, as indicated by decreased absolute and variable errors, respectively.

Conclusion. Altogether, our results suggest that subjects were able to take advantage of vision and increased neck cutaneous information provided by the by strips of adhesive bandage applied to the neck to improve postural control during unperturbed stance and cervical joint position sense.”
“Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may be beneficial MLN4924 in vivo in the treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain, although it is not an FDA-approved indication. We present a case of a 51-year-old patient that presented

with symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction and clitoral pain after an abdominal hysterectomy. Electrophysiological evaluation suggested a pudendal nerve lesion. After failure of conservative treatment, she was offered SNM as a treatment for her voiding symptoms. During test stimulation, she experienced only moderate CH5183284 inhibitor improvement in voiding symptoms, but a striking improvement in pain symptoms. She underwent a two-stage implantation of a neurostimulator with a successful outcome

after 6 months’ follow-up. The results of this report suggest that SNM may be effective in patients with neuropathic pelvic pain.”
“The occurrence of hemangioma in the female genital tract, particularly in uterine cervix, is rare. The majority of them show asymptomatic behavior. Surgical excision remains curative in most of the cases. Conservative therapies such as sclerosing agents, cryotherapy, and CO(2) laser excision may be alternatively applied. MCC-950 We present three cases of hemangiomas of the cervix in asymptomatic women, diagnosed as cavernous hemangioma in two cases and capillary hemangioma in one. All tumors were immunoreactive for CD31, CD34, factor-VIII-related antigen. Focal expression of estrogen receptors was detected. No positivity was obtained with progesterone receptor antibodies. The presence of estrogen receptor in the endothelial cells of the hemangioma of the cervix suggests a direct role of this hormone in the hemangioma development. A possible target therapy is discussed.”
“Study Design. A retrospective study of clinical results of operative treatment for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

Objective. To determine the risk factors of sagittal decompensation after long instrumentation and fusion to L5 or S1.

Summary of Background Data.

Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with coronary heart di

Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with coronary heart disease (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.98, 5.45) and the risk seemed to be fully explained by metabolic syndrome components (OR = 0.84, p = 0.54 after adjustment). Odds ratios for the independent effects of the diagnostic criteria were: hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 3.39, p < 0.001), hyperglycemia (OR = 2.70, p < 0.001), low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.35, p <

0.001), hypertension (OR = 1.49, p = 0.016) and overweight (OR = 1.07, p = 0.678). Young workers showed a higher risk associated with metabolic syndrome.

Conclusion: The risk associated with metabolic syndrome is fully explained by its components considered independently. The risk of coronary heart disease in a Spanish male working population Ricolinostat mouse is considerably increased among those with metabolic syndrome, by a factor similar to that described for other countries. Public health measures to prevent a rise in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are advisable to minimize cardiovascular disease rate in Spain. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Cyanogenic DMH1 inhibitor glucosides are amino acid-derived defence compounds found in a large number of vascular plants. Their hydrolysis by specific beta-glucosidases following tissue damage results in the release of hydrogen cyanide.

The cyanogenesis deficient1 (cyd1) mutant of Lotus japonicus carries a partial deletion of the CYP79D3 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is responsible for the first step in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis. The genomic region surrounding CYP79D3 contains genes encoding the CYP736A2 protein and the UDP-glycosyltransferase UGT85K3. In combination with CYP79D3, these genes encode the enzymes that constitute the entire pathway for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis. The biosynthetic genes for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are also co-localized in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), but the

three gene clusters show no other similarities. Although the individual enzymes encoded by the biosynthetic genes in these three plant species are related, they are not necessarily orthologous. The independent evolution of cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis MLN4924 cell line in several higher plant lineages by the repeated recruitment of members from similar gene families, such as the CYP79s, is a likely scenario.”
“Plasmodium falciparum parasites have been endemic to Haiti for >40 years without evidence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance. In 2006 and 2007, we obtained blood smears for rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and filter paper blots of blood from 821 persons by passive and active case detection. R falciparum infections diagnosed for 79 persons by blood smear or RDT were confirmed by PCR for the small subunit rRNA gene of P falciparum. Amplification of the P falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene yielded 10 samples with amplicons resistant to cleavage by Apol.

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 110: 657-

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 110: 657-664)”
“Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants

grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and AZD1208 ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei’s genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H-pop/H-sp within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was XMU-MP-1 mouse found for the Keshar population (H-pop = 0.85 and H-sp = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for

Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F-ST test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We

conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers 5-Fluoracil inhibitor to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.”
“Chemical doping is one of the major methods by which the properties of BaTiO3 are modified to induce various device characteristics. Doping strategies are generally separated into iso- and aliovalent (donors and acceptors) and into A-and B-site species within the perovskite structure. The A(1g) octahedral breathing mode at similar to 800 cm(-1) in BaTiO3 is Raman inactive for compositions with single B-site species. However, this mode becomes Raman active if more than one B-site species is present, including titanium vacancies, V-T””. Moreover, the relative intensity of the A(1g) breathing mode is qualitatively related to the concentration of the species replacing Ti in the B-site.

“BackgroundNeutropenia is not uncommon in childhood The a

“BackgroundNeutropenia is not uncommon in childhood. The aim of our study was to analyze the underlying causes of neutropenia and to evaluate its clinical significance in a series of children referred to our center.

MethodsOne hundred and four consecutive children with neutropenia were enrolled in this study. Clinical and laboratory features were analyzed.

ResultsThe majority of patients (63.5%) showed chronic neutropenia. Among all chronic forms, the most frequent was chronic idiopathic neutropenia (CIN), followed by autoimmune neutropenia

(AIN). Congenital neutropenia was identified in 6 patients. Acute neutropenia was mainly due to infections. Overall, at the time of first detection, neutropenia was more frequently severe or moderate. One-third of our patients who presented TH-302 solubility dmso with severe neutropenia were ultimately diagnosed with a post-infectious acute form. Conversely, nearly half patients with CIN, AIN, or congenital neutropenia showed moderate/mild neutropenia at onset. Among patients with AIN and CIN, nearly half recovered between 7months and GSK3235025 inhibitor 46months and approximately one-fourth experienced infectious

episodes during follow-up. No significant difference was noticed in terms of mean ANC between patients with and without remission, neither between patients with and without infections.

ConclusionsOur study confirms the great etiological heterogeneity of neutropenia in children. We could not demonstrate a correlation between ANC level at onset and the underlying disorder, nor a correlation

between mean ANC and duration of neutropenia or infectious episodes during follow-up. Neutropenia remains a disease of concern to pediatricians, requiring several laboratory AC220 molecular weight investigations, prolonged follow-up, and, in few cases, advanced molecular methods.”
“Some epidemiological data and pathophysiological evidence suggest similarities and connection of two amyloidoses: diabetes mellitus type 2, (DM2) (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). What they have in common is insulin resistance, neurodegeneration, development and progression of dementia, and the fact that in the course of both diseases fibrillar aggregates of specific proteins are accumulated in affected organs. What is more, experimental evidence also supports the hypothesis that small prefibrillar aggregates that emerge prior to the appearance of mature fibrils are responsible for a key step in development and cytotoxicity of both diseases. They also have similar pathogenic effects. Both peptides possess the common receptor AMY3. More and more evidence is accumulating that key cell regulation processes are similar for both diseases as well. The question is raised: can Alzheimer be a new form of diabetes disease?”
“The genus Piper L. includes a great number of medicinal interest species. P. arboreum is frequent in forests of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3407512]“

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3407512]“
“Background: Genetically engineered “”Golden Rice” contains up to 35 mu g beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans.

Design: Golden Rice

plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [(2)H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings Acalabrutinib nmr of 65-98 g (130 this website 200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [(13)C(10)] retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d.

Results: Our results showed that the mean (+/- SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [(2)H] retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 mu g . d

after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [(13)C(10)] retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 mu g . d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or

2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles.

Conclusion: beta-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00680355. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1776-83.”
“We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 find more (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1).

A cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews was conduct

A cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews was conducted for data collection. A convenient sample of 203 Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in southern Taiwan was recruited. The Demographic Inventory measured Selleckchem mTOR inhibitor the participants’ age, education, employment status, religion, length of residency and number of children, as well as their spouse’s age, education, employment status and religion. The Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale measured the level of distress and had six subscales: loss,

novelty, occupational adjustment, language accommodation, discrimination and alienation. Among the 203 participants, 6.4% had a high level of immigration distress; 91.1% had moderate distress; and 2.5% had minor distress. Higher mean scores were found for the loss, novelty and language accommodation subscales of the Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale. Participant’s (r = 0.321, p < 0.01) and spouse’s (r = 0.375, p < 0.01) unemployment, and more children (r = 0.129, p < 0.05) led to greater immigration distress. Length of residency in Taiwan (r = 0.576, p < 0.001) was an effective predictor of immigration distress. It indicated that the participants

who had stayed fewer years in Taiwan had a higher level of immigrant distress. Health care professionals need to be aware that the female newcomers in transnational marriages are highly susceptible selleck to immigration distress. The study suggests that healthcare professionals need to provide a comprehensive assessment of immigration distress to detect health problems early and administer culturally appropriate healthcare for immigrant women in transnational marriages.”
“Cardiac transplantation is an effective treatment for multiple types of heart failure refractive to therapy. Although immunosuppressive therapeutics have increased survival rates within the first year posttransplant, chronic rejection (CR) remains a significant barrier to long-term graft survival. Indicators

of CR include patchy interstitial fibrosis, vascular occlusion and progressive loss of graft function. Multiple factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of selleck screening library CR, including TGF beta, IL-6 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). While associated with CR, the role of CTGF in CR and the factors necessary for CTGF induction in vivo are not understood. To this end, we utilized forced expression and neutralizing antibody approaches. Transduction of allografts with CTGF significantly increased fibrotic tissue development, though not to levels observed with TGF beta transduction. Further, intragraft CTGF expression was inhibited by IL-6 neutralization whereas TGF beta expression remained unchanged, indicating that IL-6 effects may potentiate TGF beta-mediated induction of CTGF. Finally, neutralizing CTGF significantly reduced graft fibrosis without reducing TGF beta and IL-6 expression levels.

Manganese has negligible effect on the structural energy differen

Manganese has negligible effect on the structural energy difference as well as on the energy barrier along the Bain path. Our findings on the alloying induced softening or hardening of Fe-Cr based alloys against tetragonal distortions are important for

understanding the interstitial driven martensitic transformations in alloy steels. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3603024]“
“Aloe vera is a well known medicinal plant contents with over 75 different ingredients, anthraquinones, saponins, and sterols. Recent studies showed that it is a potent hypolipedimic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant. In present study we investigated the dose dependent effect of aloe vera gel on repolarization state of myocardium, heart rate, DAPT QRS complex and QT interval using electrocardiograph in albino rats. A total of 24 male albino rats were divided into four groups, one control and three experimental. An aqueous solution of Aloe barbadensis was prepared by taking fresh leaf of aloe plant. Animals of Epigenetics inhibitor all the groups were anesthetized and were treated (i.p.) with aloe vera gel extract in doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in experimental

groups I, II and III, respectively. Electrocardiograms were recorded at 0 (basal), 15 and 30 min after injection of aloe vera/saline. Aloe vera in doses of 200 mg increases QTc from 73.10 +/- 3.25 (mv) to 75.04 +/- 1.93 (mv) and in 300 mg, QTc increased from 72.10 +/- 1.85 to 76.10 +/- 1.56 which is statistically significant (p<0.05). Higher doses of aloe vera cause prolongation of QTc interval in albino rat. Therefore administration of aloe vera in higher doses IWR-1-endo mw may be cardio toxic.”
“Several reviews exist describing the safety of bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients. However, the incidence of bronchoscopic complications in lung transplant recipients in relation to trainee involvement, and clinical characteristics such as pre-transplant diagnosis and transplant type, has not been described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of

all lung transplant recipients undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (n = 259) at the University of California, San Francisco, between January, 2003, and June, 2009. Complications included bleeding, pneumothorax, aspiration, oversedation, and hypoxemia. From 2003 to 2009, 3734 flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopies were performed, including 2111 (57%) with transbronchial biopsies. Trainees were involved in 2102 bronchoscopies (56%), including 1046 transbronchial biopsies (49.5%). Complications occurred in 27 bronchoscopies [0.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.41.0)], with 10 involving a trainee (37%). Twenty (74%) occurred during bronchoscopies with transbronchial biopsies. Six of these involved a trainee, while 14 involved an attending alone (P = 0.03).