(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3407512]“
“Background: Genetically engineered “”Golden Rice” contains up to 35 mu g beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.
Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans.
Design: Golden Rice
plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [(2)H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings Acalabrutinib nmr of 65-98 g (130 this website 200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [(13)C(10)] retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d.
Results: Our results showed that the mean (+/- SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [(2)H] retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 mu g . d
after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [(13)C(10)] retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 mu g . d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or
2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles.
Conclusion: beta-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00680355. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 1776-83.”
“We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 find more (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1).