Labels in squares represent the 10–20 international A simulta

Labels in squares represent the 10–20 international … A simultaneous EEG recording, with four electrodes placed in accordance with the 10–20 system (Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz), was carried out in order to control for the participants’ alert state during the task. After the recordings, the exact location of each Ganetespib buy source, detector, and EEG electrode, as well as four fiducial points (nasion, left and right preauricular, and tip of the nose), were digitized and recorded for each participant using the stereotaxic system Brainsight to allow individual

reconstitution of the montage on a standardized MRI adult template, the Colin27 (Evans et al. 1992). Data analysis fNIRS data were processed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using the HomER (Hemodynamic Evoked Response) software (Huppert et al. 2009) and downsampled Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by a factor of 5 to lighten the data

processing. The raw hemodynamic signal was normalized with a 10-sec prestimulus time. Artifact rejection took place by withdrawing segments with light intensity amplitudes smaller than 100 DC or a normalized standard deviation higher than 50%. The optical intensity of the raw data (DC) was filtered using a low-frequency zero-phase digital filtering with a high cutoff frequency at 0.1 Hz. A Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical modified Beer–Lambert law with a differential path length factor (DPF) correction according to the age of each participant was applied (Duncan et al. 1996; Strangman 2003). For each participant, concentration changes in HbO, HbR, and HbT were averaged across the 13 blocks. HbT was computed by summing changes in HbO and HbR. Averages were coregistered and projected on the Colin27 standard MRI Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical template (Evans et al. 1992) to visualize the activated brain regions. Results Behavioral results EEG monitoring revealed no signs of drowsiness

for all participants while Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical they were performing the tasks. The participants read an average of 19 irregular words (SD = 1.5) and 15 nonwords (SD = 1.4) per block for a reading speed of 57 irregular words per minute (SD = 4.5) and 45 nonwords per minute (SD = 4.2). We found that the average error rate within a block was 1.25 errors on irregular words (SD = 0.49) and 1.95 errors on nonwords (SD = 0.88). The demographic (age, gender, and years of education) Batimastat and behavioral data (number of irregular words and nonwords read, number of errors produced) of the 12 participants are reported in Table 1. Table 1 Demographical data (gender, age, and years of education); individual mean number of irregular words and nonwords read in the 13 twenty-second blocks and individual mean number of errors produced in reading irregular words and nonwords fNIRS results Temporal course of the hemodynamic responses A typical hemodynamic response (HbO, HbR, and HbT concentrations) obtained with participant F. M.

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