Methods: Nine healthy, non-dependent prescription opioid abus

\n\nMethods: Nine healthy, non-dependent prescription opioid abusers (6 male and 3 female) participated in this within-subject, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants completed 14 paired sessions (7 sample and 7 self-administration). During each sample session, an oral dose of tramadol (200 and 400 mg), oxycodone (20 and 40 mg), codeine (100 and 200 mg) or placebo was administered, and a full array of abuse liability measures was collected. During self-administration sessions, volunteers were given the opportunity to work (via progressive ratio) for the sample dose or money.\n\nResults: All active

doses were self-administered; placebo engendered no responding. The high doses of tramadol and oxycodone were readily self-administered (70%, 59% of available drug, respectively); lower

doses and both codeine doses maintained intermediate levels of drug taking. All three drugs dose-dependently increased measures indicative of abuse liability, relative to placebo; however, the magnitude and time course of these and other pharmacodynamic effects varied qualitatively across drugs.\n\nConclusions: This study demonstrates that, like other mu opioids, higher doses of tramadol learn more function as reinforcers in opioid abusers, providing new empirical data for regulatory evaluation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lithium has long been recognised for its mood-stabilizing buy S3I-201 effects in the management of bipolar disorder (BD) but in practice its use has been limited because of real and ‘imagined’ concerns.

This article addresses the need for lithium to be measured with respect to its clinical and functional effects. It introduces a visual scale, termed lithiumeter, which captures the optimal lithium plasma levels for the treatment of BD.\n\nMethods: Key words pertaining to lithium’s administration, dosing, and side effects as well as its efficacy in acute and long-term treatment of BD were used to conduct an electronic search of the literature. Relevant articles were identified by the authors and reviewed.\n\nResults: This paper outlines the considerations necessary prior to initiating lithium therapy and provides a guide to monitoring lithium plasma levels. Current recommendations for optimal plasma lithium levels in the management of BD are then discussed with respect to indications for use in the acute phases of the illness and maintenance therapy. The risks associated with lithium treatment are also discussed.\n\nConclusions: The lithiumeter provides a practical guide of optimal lithium levels for the clinical management of BD.”
“A new species of brachycephalid frog is described from Sao Luis do Paraitinga, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by male SVL = 10.8-12.1 and female SVL = 12.6-14.

While the immunotherapeutic approach to eliminating


While the immunotherapeutic approach to eliminating

cancer was launched with the assumption that cancer cells were homogeneous, the recent genomic understanding of tumor cells indicates that there is both inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity. This presentation will discuss the consequences of this new knowledge of tumor cell biology to the immunotherapeutic approach to treating cancer.”
“1. Although ecologists commonly categorize species in terms of their functional roles, function diversity occurring AZD7762 molecular weight at the level of the individual is often dismissed.\n\n2. Multi-female colonies of the spider Anelosimus studiosus serve as habitat for a myriad of arthropods, and colony members display notably polymorphic behavioural tendencies: females exhibit either an ‘aggressive’ or ‘docile’ behavioural phenotype.\n\n3. We manipulated the phenotypic composition of colonies (100% aggressive, 50% aggressive and 50% docile, 100% docile) and tested its

effects on species interactions between A. studiosus and its web associates, and among the web associates themselves.\n\n4. We found that the phenotypic composition of A. studiosus colonies significantly impacted interactions within their web. In colonies of all aggressive females, the relationship between A. studiosus (-) and Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor its web associates (+) was exploitative and web associates negative impacted each other’s performance. In colonies of all docile females, the Selleck PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 relationship between A. studiosus (+) and its web associates (+) was facilitative and web associates positively influenced each other’s performance. Colonies of mixed phenotype had intermediate interactions.\n\n5. Our data suggest that (i) the mixture of behavioural trait variants within groups can mediate the nature of both direct and indirect species interactions, and (ii) community structure can affect which social group compositions enjoy highest fitness.”
“Cadmium is an element with proven

direct and indirect toxic effects on bones. Zinc affects the content of cadmium in the human body. These elements show antagonistic interactions. The aim of the research was to determine the levels of cadmium and zinc in the hip joint tissues and interactions between these elements. The study group consisted of 91 subjects, 66 women and 25 men. The tissues were obtained intraoperatively during hip endoprosthetic surgery. The levels of cadmium and zinc were assayed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method. The analysis of the content of cadmium and zinc in different parts of the hip joint, i.e., articular cartilage, cortical bone, and cancellous bone of the femoral head as well as the articular capsule and a fragment of the cancellous bone taken from the intertrochanteric region of the femoral bone showed significant differences.

He was admitted to the pediatric service where nutritional fo

\n\nHe was admitted to the pediatric service where nutritional formula feedings were initiated through a nasogastric tube. Weight gain was adequate,

and the hemoglobin, MAPK inhibitor serum albumen, and protein became normal. The rash improved with zinc supplementation. He was transferred to an inpatient feeding disorders unit where a team of occupational therapists implemented a behavioral modification program to overcome his severe food aversion. (J Dev Behav Pediatr 32:264-267, 2011)”
“Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA, which can be selected from random combinatorial library by SELEX in vitro. The SELEX technology has been modified over the years in different ways to become more efficient and less time-consuming, to reach higher affinities of the aptamers and for automation of the process. The multitude of different targets used in SELEX implicates aptamers are possible to be selected using any target theoretically. This paper presents the SELEX technology screening aptamers and its latest progress including modified selection methods (negative SELEX, counter SELEX and substractive SELEX) and efficient selection methods (CE-SELEX, non-SELEX, automated-SELEX and microfluidic SELEX). Additionally, cell SELEX using click here whole cells as targets is introduced. Varieties of live pathogenic organisms and many cancer cells have been used as targets for cell SELEX. Finally, an

overview of biomedical applications of aptamers is given. Aptamers as a class of biorecognition elements that possess many advantages such as high specificity and binding affinity, easy synthesis, easy modification, small Buparlisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor size, non-toxicity and good stability, have been increasingly applied in biomedical field. Especially, the combination of aptamers with nanomaterials will continuously play more and more important roles in many applications such as detection of targets, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, bioimaging, and drugs delivery.”
“AimWe aimed to establish a method to assess systemic and pre-systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity using ineffective microgram doses

of midazolam. MethodsIn an open, one sequence, crossover study, 16 healthy participants received intravenous and oral midazolam at microgram (0.001mg intravenous and 0.003mg oral) and regular milligram (1mg intravenous and 3mg oral) doses to assess the linearity of plasma and urine pharmacokinetics. ResultsDose-normalized AUC and C-max were 37.1ngml(-1)h [95% CI 35.5, 40.6] and 39.1ngml(-1) [95% CI 30.4, 50.2] for the microdose and 39.0ngml(-1)h [95% CI 36.1, 42.1] and 37.1ngml(-1) [95% CI 26.9, 51.3] for the milligram dose. CLmet was 253mlmin(-1) [95% CI 201, 318] vs. 278mlmin(-1) [95% CI 248, 311] for intravenous doses and 1880mlmin(-1) [95% CI 1590, 2230] vs. 2050mlmin(-1) [95% CI 1720, 2450] for oral doses. Oral bioavailability of a midazolam microdose was 23.4% [95% CI 20.0, 27.3] vs. 20.9% [95% CI 17.1, 25.5] after the regular dose.

With respect to quality of life, only one of our patients has a n

With respect to quality of life, only one of our patients has a normal life at present. The remaining six patients with some sort of limitation consider the aphasia/agnosia to be the main difficulty in their lives. Five

patients have normal EEGs. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up of patients with LKS shows that epilepsy and EEG abnormalities do not always disappear. Language disturbances tend to persist in most patients. The age of onset of language dysfunction does not seem to correlate Angiogenesis inhibitor with the prognosis for recovery of language function. Patients with LKS have an overall poor quality of life, mostly due to language difficulties. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Dietary fatty acid supply can affect stress response in fish during early development. Although knowledge on the mechanisms involved in fatty acid regulation of stress tolerance is scarce, it has often been hypothesised that eicosanoid profiles can influence cortisol production. Genomic cortisol actions are mediated by cytosolic receptors which may respond to cellular fatty acid signalling. An experiment was designed to test the effects of feeding gilthead sea-bream larvae with four microdiets, containing

graded arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0.4, 0.8, 1.5 and 3.0 %), on the expression of genes involved in stress response (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, glucocorticoid receptor and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), FK866 in vivo lipid and, particularly, eicosanoid metabolism (hormone-sensitive lipase, PPAR alpha, phospholipase A(2), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase), as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Fish fatty acid phenotypes reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. Growth performance, survival after acute stress and similar whole-body basal Acalabrutinib cortisol levels suggested that sea-bream larvae could tolerate a wide range of dietary ARA levels. Transcription of all genes analysed was significantly reduced at dietary ARA levels above 0.4%. Nonetheless, despite practical

suppression of phospholipase A(2) transcription, higher leukotriene B-4 levels were detected in larvae fed 3.0% ARA, whereas a similar trend was observed regarding PGE(2) production. The present study demonstrates that adaptation to a wide range of dietary ARA levels in gilthead sea-bream larvae involves the modulation of the expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis, lipid metabolism and stress response. The roles of ARA, other polyunsaturates and eicosanoids as signals in this process are discussed.”
“Context Graduate medical education ( GME) determines the size and characteristics of the future workforce. The 1997 Balanced Budget Act ( BBA) limited Medicare funding for additional trainees in GME. There has been concern that because Medicare is the primary source of GME funding, the BBA would discourage growth in GME.

Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats

were randomly div

Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats

were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=12) and experimental group (n=20). Kaolin was injected into the lateral ventricle of experimental animals. Control rats underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of kaolin. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess ventricle size. The CSF was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the excised brains were studied by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses to measure the messenger RNA and protein expression level of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1. Results: Hydrocephalus was induced in all the rats after PHA-848125 kaolin injection into the lateral ventricle. After 2 weeks, the expressions of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1 in the CSF and cerebral tissue were significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group. Conclusions: This results indicated that HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1 may participate in the formation and prognosis of hydrocephalus after kaolin induction.”
“Background: Three-dimensional

echocardiographic (3DE) analysis provides better measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction, myocardial deformation, and dyssynchrony. Many studies have shown that this technique has high intrainstitutional reproducibility. However, interinstitutional find more reproducibility is low, limiting its adoption. The aim of this study was to determine if standardization of training could reduce the interinstitutional variability ACY-738 in 3DE data analysis.\n\nMethods: In total, 50 full-volume, transthoracic 3DE data sets

of the left ventricle were analyzed by two readers. Measurements obtained included LV volumes, ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, and two dyssynchrony indices. The cases represented a wide spectrum of ejection fraction. After initial analysis of 21 studies, readers formally met to standardize their analytic approach on six additional cases. Five months after the intervention, 23 new cases were analyzed. Paired t tests were performed to identify systematic institutional differences in measurements. Interinstitutional variability was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients and variability.\n\nResults: Before the intervention, there was a systematic bias in LV volumes, which was eliminated after intervention. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed that the intervention improved agreement in measurements of LV volumes, strain, and dyssynchrony between the two centers and decreased variability.\n\nConclusions: A simple intervention to standardize analysis can reduce interinstitutional variability of measurements obtained from 3DE analysis.

“Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds with the pores of

“Bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds with the pores of several hundred

micrometers and a competent compressive strength were prepared through replication method. The in vitro degradation and bioactivity behaviors of the scaffolds have been investigated by selleck chemical immersing the scaffolds statically in diluted phosphate solution at 37A degrees C, up to 360 h. To monitor the degradation progress of the scaffolds, the amount of leaching elements from the scaffolds were determined by ICP-AES. The XRD and SEM results reveal that, during the degradation of scaffolds, the borosilicate scaffolds converted to hydroxyapatite. The compressive strength of the scaffolds decreased during degradation, in the way that can be well predicted by the degradation products, or the leachates, from the scaffolds. MTT assay

results demonstrate that the degradation products have little, if any, inhibition effect on the cell proliferation, when diluted to a certain concentration ([B] < 2.690 and pH value at neutral level). The study shows that borosilicate glass scaffold could be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering material.”
“Estrogens have some anti-atherosclerotic properties and they influence nitric oxide (NO) production. The aim of this study was to determine NO, levels in post-menopausal women and the effect of estrogen/estrogen-progesteron therapy (ET/EPT) XMU-MP-1 in vivo on plasma NO levels. Eighty postmenopausal women (M(1)) comprising 26 with surgically induced menopause (ET(1)), mean age 50.9 +/- 2.9 yr, and 54 with physiological menopause (EPT(1)), mean age 50.5 +/- MI-503 3.0 yr, were studied. Forty healthy pre-menopausal women, mean age 48.3 +/- 2.3 yr were the controls (C). The post-menopausal women

were treated for 4 months: group ET, with ET and group EPT(1) with EPT. Serum estradiol (E(2)), FSH, NO(x) and lipid profile before and after therapy were measured. NO, levels were lower in group M, than in group C (8.75 +/- 1.57 vs 10.27 +/- 2.62, p<0.01) and increased after hormonal therapy (10.65 +/- 2.38). NO(x) concentration showed significant positive correlation with E(2) (r=0.25, p<0.05). Total cholesterol (240.9 +/- 43.2), LDL-cholesterol (155.2 +/- 33.6), triglycerides (124.8 +/- 54.1), and apolipoprotein B (1.52 +/- 0.33) were higher in group M1 than in group C (223.1 +/- 44.3, 133.0 +/- 38.2, 108.3 +/- 52.9, and 1.12 +/- 0.36, respectively), and after ET/EPT they decreased to the values observed in group C. There were no correlations between NO and lipids or apolipoproteins. Conclusions: ET and EPT improve NO(x) synthesis and endothelial relaxation. Medroxyprogesterone acetate added to E2 does not significantly influence NO(x) levels.”
“Objective: Centralized adiposity, insulin resistance, excess iron, and elevated oxidative stress place postmenopausal women at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD).

A dimensionless constant is introduced to scale the contributions

A dimensionless constant is introduced to scale the contributions of component pathways by quantifying their completion with respect to the loading impulse applied. This concept is extended to suggest a new framework to describe the response to arbitrary insult and to show the relevance of particular techniques to component parts of the problem. The application of a step impulse via shock loading is shown to be the primary derivation experiment to address these needs and map components of the response.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of 5 analysis methods in selleck quantifying

scoliotic deformity, using the spatial positions of SP tips acquired by a custom-developed ultrasound-based system, with different curve fitting

methods and angle metrics in terms of their correlation with Cobb angle, test-retest reliability, vulnerability to digitization errors, and accuracy of identifying end vertebrae and selleck screening library convexity direction. Methods: Three spinal column dry bone specimens were randomly configured to 30 different scoliotic deformities. Raw spatial data of the SP tips were processed by the following 3 methods: (1) fifth-order polynomial fitting, (2) locally weighted polynomial regression (LOESS) with smoothing parameter (alpha) = .25, and (3) LOESS with alpha = .4. Angle between the 2 tangents along the spinal curve with the most positive and negative slopes (ie, posterior deformity AZD2014 solubility dmso angle) and summation of the angles formed by every 2 lines joining 3 neighboring SPs between the end vertebrae (ie, accumulating angle) were computed to quantify scoliotic deformity. Their performances were compared in terms of their correlation with Cobb angle, test-retest reliability, vulnerability to digitization errors, and accuracy of identifying end vertebrae. Results: Posterior deformity angle calculated from the spinal curve constructed by LOESS with alpha = .4 excelled in every aspect of the comparison (ie, Cobb angle, test-retest reliability, vulnerability to digitization errors, and accuracy of identifying end

vertebrae and convexity direction), making it the method of choice of those tested for processing the spatial data of the SP tips in this ultrasonography study using dry bone specimens. Conclusions: The ultrasound-based system and the LOESS (0.4)-posterior deformity angle method developed for this study offer a viable technology for quantifying scoliotic deformity in a reliable and radiation-free manner. However, further validation using scoliosis subjects is needed before they can be used to quantify spinal deformity in the clinical setting.”
“Synthesis of 6-amino-2-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carboxylic acid and 2-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carboxylic acid was performed. Both four-membered rings in the spirocyclic scaffold were constructed by subsequent ring closure of corresponding 1,3-bis-electrophiles at 1,1-C- or 1,1-N-bis-nucleophiles.

In mature myofibrils, this interaction is limited to longitudinal

In mature myofibrils, this interaction is limited to longitudinally oriented structures associated with myofibril development and remodeling. These data provide new insights into the role of Xin actin-binding repeat-containing proteins (together with their interaction

partners) in myofibril assembly and after muscle damage.”
“The Selleckchem YH25448 purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure 3-deazaneplanocin A solubility dmso was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal

“AimsOur objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John’s wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. MethodsWe performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1g of metformin twice daily for 1 week with and without 21 days of preceding and concomitant treatment with St John’s wort. The pharmacokinetics

of metformin was determined, and a 2h oral glucose tolerance test was performed. ResultsSt John’s wort decreased the renal clearance of metformin but did not affect any other Selleck Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library metformin pharmacokinetic parameter. The addition of St John’s wort decreased the area under the glucose concentration-time curve [702 (95% confidence interval, 643-761) vs. 629min*mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 568-690), P = 0.003], and this effect was caused by a statistically significant increase in the acute insulin response. ConclusionsSt John’s wort improves glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion independently of insulin sensitivity in healthy male subjects taking metformin.”
“Sprouty proteins have been shown to negatively regulate a variety of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways and are considered to be tumor suppressor proteins. The pathophysiological functions of Sproutys in vivo remain to be investigated. In this study, we examined the physiological function of Sprouty4 as an angiogenic regulator, using Sprouty4 knockout (KO) mice and cells. We found that transplanted tumor cells grow much faster in Sprouty4 KO mice than in wild type (WT) mice, which we associate with enhanced neovascularization in the tumors transplanted into Sprouty4 KO mice.

We then asked whether the responses in these regions reflected ca

We then asked whether the responses in these regions reflected categorical or continuous neural representations of facial expression. Participants viewed images from continua generated by morphing between faces posing different click here expressions such that the expression could be the same, could involve a physical change but convey the same emotion, or could differ by

the same physical amount but be perceived as two different emotions. We found that the posterior superior temporal sulcus was equally sensitive to all changes in facial expression, consistent with a continuous representation. In contrast, the amygdala was only sensitive to changes in expression that altered the perceived emotion, demonstrating a more categorical representation. These results offer a resolution to the controversy about how facial expression is processed in the brain by showing that both continuous and categorical representations underlie our ability to extract this important social cue.”
“Agenesis of the permanent teeth is a congenital anomaly that is frequently seen in humans. Oligodontia is a severe type of tooth agenesis

involving 6 or more congenitally missing teeth, excluding the third molars. Previous studies have indicated that mutations in the homeobox gene MSX1, paired domain transcription factor PAX9, and EDA are associated with non-syndromic oligodontia. This study reports a Japanese family (eight of 14 family members affected) with non-syndromic oligodontia who preferentially SHP099 molecular weight lacked molar teeth. In this family, a novel frameshift mutation (321_322insG) IPI-145 in vitro was identified in the paired domain of PAX9. The frameshift mutation caused altered amino acids in the paired domain and premature termination of translation by 26 amino acids. When

transfected into COS-7 cells, the mRNA expression of 321_322insG PAX9 was comparable with that of wild-type PAX9. However, the mRNA of 321_322insG PAX9 was more unstable than that of wild-type PAX9. This mRNA instability caused a marked decrease in protein production, as evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunostaining. These findings suggest that the 321_322insG mutation causes insufficient function of PAX9 protein and haploinsufficiency as a genetic model of familial non-syndromic oligodontia with a PAX9 mutation.”
“Many diseases affecting the cutaneous tissues may incur observable changes to the mucosal tissues of the oral cavity. As a consequence, the dermatologist should always assess the oral mucosal tissues of their patients as a matter of routine. Equivocal lesions should be referred to a dentist for further assessment. Although most encountered white oral lesions are innocuous, some potentially serious conditions may mimic an innocuous white lesion.

The high-order flexural vibration modes are

recent advanc

The high-order flexural vibration modes are

recent advancement of AFM dynamic force modes. AFM optical lever detection sensitivity plays a major role in dynamic force modes because it determines the accuracy in mapping surface morphology, distinguishing various tip-surface interactions, and measuring the strength of the tip-surface interactions. In this work, we have analyzed optimization and calibration of the optical lever detection sensitivity for an AFM cantilever-tip ensemble vibrating in high-order flexural modes and simultaneously experiencing a wide range and variety of tip-sample interactions. It is Small molecule library found that the optimal detection sensitivity depends on the vibration mode, the ratio of the force constant of tip-sample interactions to the cantilever stiffness, as well as the incident laser spot size and its location on the cantilever. It is also found that the optimal detection sensitivity is less dependent on the strength of tip-sample interactions for high-order flexural modes relative to the fundamental mode, i.e., tapping mode. When the force constant of tip-sample interactions significantly exceeds the cantilever stiffness, the optimal detection sensitivity occurs only when the laser spot locates at a certain distance from the cantilever-tip end. Thus, in addition to the “globally optimized detection sensitivity,”

the “tip optimized detection sensitivity” is also determined. Selleck SC79 Finally, we have proposed a calibration method to determine the actual AFM detection sensitivity in high-order flexural vibration modes against the static end-load sensitivity that is obtained traditionally by measuring a force-distance curve on a hard substrate in the contact mode.”
“Cephaloceles are rare neural tube defects. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with cephaloceles who underwent surgical treatment in our institute for a 14-year period, between January 1995 and January 2009. There were 27 children (11 boys and 16 girls; mean age, 7.5 mo; range, 1 d to 7 y). Seventeen encephaloceles were occipital; 5, parietal; 2, ethmoidal; 1, frontoethmoidal; 1, nasoethmoidal; and 1, sphenoethmoidal.

The mean size of sac was 3 cm, although 2 cases of giant occipital encephaloceles were observed. R406 molecular weight In 19 cases (70%), the sac contained gliotic brain (encephaloceles) that was excised. All patients were operated on in 1 surgical procedure. Hydrocephalus was found in 16 patients and treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Postoperatively, there was no neurologic deficit or death. After a mean follow-up period of 7.2 years (range, 6 mo to 11.5 y), all patients were in good condition. In conclusion, occipital cephaloceles are more frequently encountered and are usually associated with hydrocephalus. Surgery should be performed as early as possible and only after careful preoperative planning especially for the anterior cephaloceles.