First, efficacy was demonstrated in a multiple-dose treatment ALK inhibitor study. Almost complete inhibition of clinical disease progression was obtained, including reduced bone and cartilage destruction in anti-mC5aR-treated mice. Then, the mechanism of action was examined by looking for early effects of anti-mC5aR treatment in single-dose treatment studies. We found that 48 h after single-dose treatment with anti-mC5aR, the neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into the paws was already reduced. In addition, several inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A were reduced locally in the paws, indicating reduction of local inflammation. Furthermore,
dose-setting experiments supported a beneficial clinical effect of dosing above the C5aR saturation level. In conclusion, these preclinical data demonstrated
rapid onset effects of antibody blockade of C5aR. The data have translational value in supporting the Novo Nordisk clinical trials of an anti-C5aR antibody in rheumatoid arthritis patients, by identifying INCB024360 mouse potential biomarkers of treatment effects as well as by providing information on pharmacodynamics and novel insights into the mechanism of action of monoclonal antibody blockade of C5aR. “
“Preterm labor and birth continue to pose a significant challenge to physicians in the obstetrics and neonatal fields. Until specific and effective therapeutic treatments are developed to prevent preterm labor, the best means of reducing preterm birth rate is early detection and diagnosis. However, current approaches to predict preterm labor have had variable success in the clinical setting. In this review, we discuss several limitations of using biomarkers from biological samples to predict preterm labor. In addition, we propose strategies for improving our ability to predict preterm labor, as well as directing therapies
that are best suited to the underlying cause of preterm labor. Preterm PJ34 HCl labor and birth are responsible for the majority of neonatal morbidity and mortality including cerebral palsy, blindness, and deafness, resulting in an annual cost of over 26 billion dollars in 2005. Not surprisingly, a tremendous amount of effort has been expended to counter the rising trend in preterm births. Clinicians are under increasing pressure to practice ‘evidence-based medicine,’ which is often mistakenly interpreted as ‘randomized controlled trials’. Using that criterion, there is a paucity of effective interventions or predictive tools to stop preterm labor. For example, the lack of evidenced-based data suggests we abandon interventions such as IV hydration and reduced activity, which many clinicians believe (at least anecdotally) are effective in some patients. Moreover, the data from ‘the evidence’ appear inconsistent, at least on the surface. For example, midtrimester short cervix (<25 mm) has been shown to be a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth.