\n\nMethods: Nine healthy, non-dependent prescription opioid abusers (6 male and 3 female) participated in this within-subject, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants completed 14 paired sessions (7 sample and 7 self-administration). During each sample session, an oral dose of tramadol (200 and 400 mg), oxycodone (20 and 40 mg), codeine (100 and 200 mg) or placebo was www.selleckchem.com/HDAC.html administered, and a full array of abuse liability measures was collected. During self-administration sessions, volunteers were given the opportunity to work (via progressive ratio) for the sample dose or money.\n\nResults: All active
doses were self-administered; placebo engendered no responding. The high doses of tramadol and oxycodone were readily self-administered (70%, 59% of available drug, respectively); lower
doses and both codeine doses maintained intermediate levels of drug taking. All three drugs dose-dependently increased measures indicative of abuse liability, relative to placebo; however, the magnitude and time course of these and other pharmacodynamic effects varied qualitatively across drugs.\n\nConclusions: This study demonstrates that, like other mu opioids, higher doses of tramadol learn more function as reinforcers in opioid abusers, providing new empirical data for regulatory evaluation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lithium has long been recognised for its mood-stabilizing buy S3I-201 effects in the management of bipolar disorder (BD) but in practice its use has been limited because of real and ‘imagined’ concerns.
This article addresses the need for lithium to be measured with respect to its clinical and functional effects. It introduces a visual scale, termed lithiumeter, which captures the optimal lithium plasma levels for the treatment of BD.\n\nMethods: Key words pertaining to lithium’s administration, dosing, and side effects as well as its efficacy in acute and long-term treatment of BD were used to conduct an electronic search of the literature. Relevant articles were identified by the authors and reviewed.\n\nResults: This paper outlines the considerations necessary prior to initiating lithium therapy and provides a guide to monitoring lithium plasma levels. Current recommendations for optimal plasma lithium levels in the management of BD are then discussed with respect to indications for use in the acute phases of the illness and maintenance therapy. The risks associated with lithium treatment are also discussed.\n\nConclusions: The lithiumeter provides a practical guide of optimal lithium levels for the clinical management of BD.”
“A new species of brachycephalid frog is described from Sao Luis do Paraitinga, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by male SVL = 10.8-12.1 and female SVL = 12.6-14.