2007; Disney and Reynolds 2014) In an early study, McCormick and

2007; Disney and Reynolds 2014). In an early study, McCormick and Prince reported that ACh, acting via a muscarinic receptors, does excite a class of neurons in the guinea pig cingulate cortex that emit narrow spikes (McCormick and Prince

1986) and most PV neurons in guinea pig cortex do express m1 AChRs (Disney and Reynolds 2014). Thus, it seems likely that ACh could excite PV neurons via m1 AChRs. We have shown previously that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical whatever the mediating receptor or downstream effector, ACh released into V1 Ponatinib TNKS1 induces the release of GABA, indicating that ACh can excite inhibitory neurons in V1 (Disney et al. 2012), as would be required if cholinergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical modulation were the underlying cause of attention-mediated increases in spike rate in narrow-spiking neurons. Most of the work on cholinergic

modulation in the macaque has been undertaken in area V1, although it has recently been shown that local ACh release changes a number of response properties in MT (Thiele et al. 2012). Very little is known about AChR expression, release or local effects in areas – such as MT or V4 – where neuronal responses are more strongly modulated by attention. The present study suggests that experiments conducted on cholinergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical control of inhibition in V1 may well be broadly applicable across the visual cortex. Our finding that expression of m1 AChRs by excitatory neurons is stronger in MT than in V1, combined with the similar expression

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by PV neurons makes it likely that other features of cholinergic modulation of the cortical circuit and particularly of the balance of excitation and inhibition will change as one moves up through Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the visual pathway. Other classes of muscarinic LCL161? receptors In this study, we looked at one type of muscarinic AChR, type m1. There are four other types of muscarinic AChRs; Entinostat m2-5. Previous in situ hybridization studies of the macaque cortex suggest that receptor types m3 and m4 are not strongly expressed in the visual cortex (Tigges et al. 1997). Unfortunately, antibodies directed against m3, m4 and m5 AChRs do not pass controls for use in the macaque monkey (Disney and Reynolds 2014; and A. A. Disney unpubl. data) so these anatomical data are unlikely to become available in the near future. Some antibodies against the m2 AChR do pass controls in macaques (Disney et al. 2006, 2007; Disney and Aoki 2008). This receptor type is also expressed by many PV neurons in macaque V1 (Disney and Aoki 2008). A future study of m2 expression in extrastriate cortical areas would be valuable.

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