A total of 477 individuals had

A total of 477 individuals had alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence, and 433 individuals had alcohol dependence without comorbid drug use. The association of CHRM2 originated entirely in alcoholics with comorbid drug dependence. In the alcohol-dependent group without drug dependence there was no evidence of association to CHRM2. 12 Studies in mice indicate

that the 5HT1B receptor gene, which encodes the terminal auto receptor regulating serotonin release, is involved in cocaine and alcohol addiction. Mice lacking the 5HT1B receptor show heightened response to cocaine and alcohol and augmented cocaine and alcohol self-administration, and mice knocked out for the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical HTR1B receptor were more aggressive and drank more alcohol.14,15 In humans, HTR1B was associated with antisocial alcoholism (alcoholism

comorbid with antisocial personality disorder) in two populations,16 and depression and anxiety.17 One of the earliest observations of cross-inheritance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in addictions was the tendency of fathers with antisocial personality disorder to have children with alcoholism, whether or not the child was adopted out to a leave a message family without pathology.18 Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variation Pharmacokinetic variation refers to variation in drug absorption, distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Pharmacodynamic variation refers to the response of the body and encompasses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dose effects, ascending and descending limb variation, sensitization and tolerance, developmental and age effects, and genetic variation. The classic and well-known examples

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of pharmacokinetic variation in addiction are the functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B2-His47Arg) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which metabolizes alcohol to acetaldehyde and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH – Glu487Lys) which metabolizes acetaldehyde to acetate. Following alcohol consumption, both the Arg47 and selleck chemicals llc Lys487 alleles, alone or together, can lead to the accumulation of acetaldehyde, producing aversive flushing, nausea, and headache.19,20 People of Southeast Cilengitide Asian ancestry are especially likely to carry the ADH1B Arg47 and ALDH2 Lys487 alleles, but individuals of Jewish ancestry also often carry the Arg47 allele.21 Both the Arg47 and Lys487 alleles lead to a reduction in risk of alcoholism, with a protective effect of fourfold to tenfold in carriers, and an additive protective effect when both alleles are carried by the same person. The ADH1B alleles are codominant in action but ALDH2 Lys487 is semidominant, such that heterozygous carriers have very low levels of ALDH2 enzyme activity. However, ALDH2 Lys487/Lys487 homozygotes are nearly completely protected from alcoholism. The action of these two genetic variants has an interesting pharmacologic parallel. Disulfiram, which inhibits ALDH, is one of several drugs in use for treatment of alcoholism.

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