The concept originally came from William Sargent and colleagues a

The concept originally came from William Sargent and colleagues at St Thomas’ Hospital, kinase inhibitor Nutlin-3a London. The meaning of the term has fluctuated. The originators probably had in mind nonendogenous depression and later, depression with anxiety or anxiety disorder alone, rather than

the more recent meaning of the term, which focuses on vegetative symptoms reversed from their usual directions in endogenous depression.49 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The concept has always been associated with response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), but the evidence that atypical depression in its current meaning is associated with good MAOI response is mainly limited to one very influential US research group. Other evidence would point to anxious or phobic patients, but in general, selectivity appears to be weak, and there is evidence that MAOIs, in a high enough dose, are effective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in quite a range of depressives.50 In practice, it appears that clinicians, at least in Europe, do not use the term as much today as they did in the 1960s and 1970s, and its importance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may be diminishing. So, too, is research

in relation to it. The fourth DSM-IV specifier is for the presence of catatonic features. This is idiosyncratic, and does not correspond to much in the earlier literature. Its meaning is not very clear, but much of the description seems to be that of psychomotor retardation. Retarded depression does have a considerable lineage,

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but has not proved a very useful classification and is not very stable between episodes. This subtype could be dropped without loss. DSM-IV has some other provisional classifications in its appendix. Recurrent brief depression appeared and generated much excitement, but has not proven Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical very useful and now receives less attention, so the case has not been made for its continuing inclusion. Mixed anxiety -depression is common, but can easily be handled by modern ideas of comorbidity and two more info diagnoses. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is not purely depressive, and is beyond the scope of this review. Transcultural aspects The modern concept of depression, with emphasis on psychological feelings, is particularly Western, and to some extent a 20th-century development. Earlier Western Dacomitinib concepts were less psychological. Some other cultures and languages place emphasis on other aspects.51 It was thought at one time that mood disorders were less common in other cultures, for instance African, than in Western. In general this does not now appear to be the case, but to have been an artefact of previous Western psychiatrists failing to recognize the disorder in other cultural and linguistic groups. Mood disorders do appear to be universal, once they are sought by local psychiatrists who understand the culture, language, and metaphors used to express mood.

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