Various parameters

can be

Various parameters

can be easily changed during clinical investigation: image PCI-32765 manufacturer contrast is mainly defined by repetition time (TR) and spin echo time (TE); image resolution is defined by slice thickness (TH), field of view (FOV), and matrix size (MA), which also influence texture analysis. The parameters of k-space acquisition and reconstruction arc very important: k-space is the artificial space in which the raw MRI data are collected, and the image contrast, and texture is very sensitive to k-space strategies. Other parameters like coil setup and number of active coil segments are also responsible for signal and flip angle (α) variations in the image. Careful Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical investigation of the dependence of all these variables will help understand how MRI image texture is formed in tissue structures. In our

studies, MRI acquisition was performed in the standard head coil of a 1.5-T scanner (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Spin echo technique One of the most, important measuring techniques in clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical diagnosis is the spin echo sequence, in which 90° and 180° radio frequency (RF) pulses produce the spin echo signal. In addition, gradients are used in x,y, and z. directions to localize the signal.8 The advantages of this technique are reduced artifacts, clearly defined contrast, and common availability. The disadvantages arc the contrast dependency on RF pulse quality, and slice cross-talking, which is typical of a two-dimensional (2D) technique.

This imaging technique allows measurement of the three relevant MRI tissue parameters: spin density (ρ), spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and spin-spin relaxation time (T2), which are most responsible for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tissue contrast and texture. According to the theoretical equation for the spin echo signal:9 S ≈ ρ · (1—e-TR/T1) · e-TE/T2 [1] in which S is the spin echo Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical signal, the contrast p can be created by a long TR and short. TE, resulting in a flat image contrast and texture at high signal intensity (Figure 1). T1 contrast can be created by short TR and short TE in spin echo imaging (Figure 1b). On the other hand, T2 contrast is created by long TR and long TE, mainly reflecting the water content of the tissue (Figure 1c). These three physical tissue parameters are described in reference 1 .The real physical properties Oxymatrine of tissues may be obscured by artificial contrast, and texture from the scanner. Figure 1. Spin echo images of a patient with meningioma. A. p-image (TR/TE = 2000 ms/1 0 ms). B. Ti image (TR/TE = 600 ms/1 0 ms). C. T2 image (TR/TE 2000 ms/1 00 ms). TR, repetition time; TE, spin echo time. Slice profile Slice profile is defined by the slice gradient and the shape of the RF pulse. Ideally, we would like to measure a rectangular slice, but due to technical reasons the real slice profile is Gaussian shaped.

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