Therefore we systematically reviewed the literature to answer the following questions: 1. Do physical activity programs improve muscle strength, balance, and endurance in adults between 40 and 65 years old? In this review, we used the definition of physical activity recommended
by the American College of Sports Medicine: body movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles and that increases energy expenditure ( Garber et al 2011), which includes, but is not restricted to, structured and planned exercise programs. A protocol defining the aims and methods of this systematic review with meta-analysis was written before conducting the review. Reporting was guided by the PRISM A statement (Moher et al 2009). We conducted a computerised search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, and EMBASE using
optimised search strategies from earliest record to February 2010. These search strategies selleck kinase inhibitor are Selleck MG-132 outlined in Appendix 1 (see the eAddenda for Appendix 1). Reference lists of systematic review and clinical guidelines (eg, ACSM) as well as specialised websites (eg, Lifestyle Medicine, National Institutes of Health) were also hand searched. Searches were not restricted by language. Two reviewers (MF and DN) independently assessed study eligibility using the criteria shown in Box 1. The same investigators also independently extracted information about trial quality and outcome data using standardised data extraction forms. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Design • Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial Participants • Adults between 40 and 65 years old Intervention • Physical activity program in community or workplace Outcome measures • Strength Comparisons • Physical activity program versus nothing/sham Quality: The quality of included trials was assessed by extracting information about whether the study design incorporated concealed inhibitors allocation of participants to groups and blinding of outcome assessors. Participants: Trials involving adult participants
with a mean age between 40 and 65 years were included. Trials of post-surgical rehabilitation or involving participants with a specific pathology were excluded. The age, gender, and number of participants were extracted to describe the trials. The recruitment mafosfamide method was also extracted. Intervention: The experimental intervention was required to be a program that involved the performance of any physical activity in community settings and workplaces as defined by the ACSM ( Garber et al 2011). Active forms of water-based exercises were eligible, but passive forms (eg, bathing in hot mineral waters, underwater massage) were not eligible. Trials were only included if they compared a physical activity program to a no-intervention control condition, irrespective of the duration of the physical activity program. Trials where physical activity was combined with other interventions were only included if the control group excluded physical activity.