Total protein levels, determined by immunohistochemistry,

Total protein levels, determined by immunohistochemistry, selleck chemicals llc are not significantly different to WT in the striatum or globus pallidus, but are significantly decreased by 19% in the substantia nigra. CB1 receptor ligand binding demonstrates significant but small decreases (<20%) in all basal ganglia regions evaluated. The levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol are significantly increased in the cortex (147%) while anandamide is significantly decreased in the hippocampus to 67% of WT. Decreases are also apparent in the ligand binding of neuronal D1 and D2 dopamine receptors

co-located with CB1, while there is no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding. These results suggest that in this R16/1 mouse colony at 12 weeks there are only very small changes in CB1 protein and receptors and thus this would be an appropriate time point to evaluate therapeutic interventions. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Positive Veliparib mouse effects on lateral center of mass (CoM) shifts during balance recovery have been seen with voluntarily unilateral arm raising but not with voluntarily bilateral knee flexion. To determine whether unilateral voluntary knee movements can be effectively incorporated into balance corrections we

perturbed the balance of 30 young healthy subjects using multi-directional rotations of the support surface while they simultaneously executed unilateral knee flexion. Combined pitch and roll rotations (7.5 degrees and 60 degrees/s) were presented randomly in six different directions. Subjects were tested in four stance conditions: balance perturbation only (130); cued flexion of one knee only (KO); combined support surface rotation and cued (at rotation onset) flexion

of the uphill knee, contralateral to tilt (CONT), or of the downhill knee, ipsilateral to tilt (IPS). Outcome measures were CoM motion and biomechanical and electromyography (EMG) responses of the legs, arms and trunk. Predicted measures (PO+KO) were compared with combined measures (CONT or IPS). Unilateral knee flexion of the uphill knee (CONT) provided considerable benefit in balance recovery. Subjects rotated their pelvis and more to the uphill side than predicted. Downhill knee bending (IPS) also had a positive effect on CoM motion because of a greater than predicted simultaneous lateral shift of the pelvis uphill. KO leg muscle activity showed anticipatory postural activity (APA) with similar profiles to early balance correcting responses. Onsets of muscle responses and knee velocities were earlier for PO, CONT, and IPS compared to KO conditions. EMG response amplitudes for CONT and IPS conditions were generally not different from the PO condition and therefore smaller than predicted. Later stabilizing responses at 400 ms had activation amplitudes generally equal to those predicted from the PO+KO conditions.

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