To investigate whether C

To investigate whether C. Blebbistatin datasheet butyricum regulates IL-10 expression in HT-29 cells, the cells were exposed to 1 × 106, 1 × 107, 1 × 108 CFU ml−1 of C. butyricum for 2 h. The culture media were collected and analyzed for IL-10 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the same cells from the original culture medium were harvested for

real-time PCR analysis. HT-29 cells pretreated with IL-10 antibody or siIL-10 were treated with 2 ml 1640 media or C. butyricum suspensions at designated concentration (1 × 108 CFU ml−1), and incubated for 2 h. The culture media were collected and analyzed for IL-8 and IL-10 by ELISA, and the same cells from the original culture medium were harvested for real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In addition, we also detected the morphology of apoptotic cell nuclei using the PI method. Determination of IL-8 secretion using a sandwich ELISA Human IL-8 proteins were assayed using BlueGene ELISA Kits, according to the manufacturer’s instructions (BlueGene Biotechnology, Shanghai, China). Western blot Batimastat nmr analysis for NF-κB (p50/105) and IκB expression Total cellular and nuclear proteins were extracted according to the instructions of the nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extraction kit (Beyotime, Haimen, China). The nuclear extracts were used to determine NF-κB protein levels and the cytoplasmic extracts were Selleck AG-120 used to determine IκB levels. The protein content of the lysates

was estimated using an enhanced BCA protein assay kit (according to the manufacturer’s instructions). Fifty micrograms of protein from each sample were subjected to SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis, proteins were electro-blotted to a Hybond-C Extra nitrocellulose membrane Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Amersham, USA). The membrane was blocked at room temperature with 5% non-fat dry milk in TBS containing 0.3% Tween (TBS-T). The membrane was washed thrice with TBS-T and incubated overnight at 4°C with the primary antibody, anti-NF-κB (1:2000), anti-IκB (1:2500) and anti-β-actin (1:3000). This was followed by 1 h incubation with a 1:5000 dilution of the appropriate horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody. After incubation, the

membrane was washed with TBS-T thrice. The antigen-antibody complexes were visualized by enhanced chemiluminescence and exposed to X-ray film for between 0.5 and 30 min [12]. Real-time quantitative PCR The cells were harvested and washed with ice-cold PBS. Total RNA was extracted using an RNATMiso PLUS Kit (Takara Biotechnology, Dalian, China). The RNA was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA) using PrimeScript 2st Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Takara Biotechnology, Dalian, China). Real-time cDNA amplification was performed using the SYBR Premix EX TaqTM (Takara Biotechnology, Dalian, China). cDNA was then diluted 1:10 in RNase-free, diethyl pyrocarbonate-treated water. Table 1 shows the primers used for real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

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