The capacity for trees to survive over very long periods also means that they have BEZ235 to cope with repeated environmental stresses as drought or flooding, heat, fire or freezing temperatures, excess light etc. In addition, the clonal nature of many populations makes them more susceptible to various pathogens. Many of these stresses (be there biotic or abiotic) are accompanied by an oxidative stress as in other living species. In order to withstand environmental constraints, trees rely on antioxidant
networks and signalling pathways that are generally exacerbated in plants compared to other living organisms, perhaps because plants also perform photosynthesis and thus produce excess oxygen in their chloroplasts leading to larger concentrations of reactive oxygen species. Perhaps as a consequence but also because of additional duplication events, the genome of poplar JAK inhibitor contains a much larger number of genes (ca. 45,000) than non photosynthetic genomes (human 20,000–25,000 selleck chemical genes) but also some non perennial plants as arabidopsis (26,000 genes) (Tuskan et al. 2006). Despite the duplication events, many of these genes are orphan (i.e. there is no equivalent in other species), suggesting that trees may have vastly different metabolic activities compared to other species, even photosynthetically active herbaceous species. The recent
deciphering of the poplar genome revealing a higher gene complexity in trees, the increasingly harsh environmental and biotic constraints that plants are experiencing linked to global warming and pollution have led us to propose a special issue of Photosynthesis Research with the topic ‘Stress in Trees, the Poplar Model’. Many colleagues have enthusiastically endorsed this project and contributed. This special issue contains seven different articles that all deal with poplar, photosynthesis and stress. find more In an article entitled ‘Isoprene emission
protects photosynthesis in sunfleck exposed Grey poplar’, Behnke and colleagues have combined transient temperature and light stress and analysed photosynthetic gas exchange in grey poplar which has been genetically modified in isoprene emission capacity. They demonstrate that the ability to emit isoprene is crucial to maintain photosynthesis when exposed to sunflecks and provide also experimental evidence indicating that the antioxidant system is adjusted in isoprene non-emitting poplars. The second article by Silim et al. is entitled ‘Temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in Populus balsamifera L.: acclimation versus adaptation’. They have investigated photosynthesis and respiration parameters in poplar cultivars collected from warm and cool habitats and grown at warm and cool temperatures. They conclude that primary carbon metabolism clearly acclimates to growth temperature in P.