Differences in age, handedness, physical activity, physical measu

Differences in age, handedness, physical activity, physical measurements [height, weight, body mass index (BMI)], baseline RMT and AMT, MEP1 mV, AHI, sleep efficiency and sleep respiratory data were compared between groups (patients with OSA, controls) using unpaired Student’s t-tests. Sleep architecture was compared using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance (anovaRM) with a between-subject factor of group (OSA, control) and within-subject factor of sleep stage [rapid eye movement (REM)

sleep, non-REM click here (NREM) Stages 1 and 2, and slow-wave sleep (SWS; comprised of NREM Stages 3 and 4)]. Significant main effects and interactions were further investigated using one-factor anova with Bonferroni correction for multiple contrasts. Mixed-model analysis was used to examine the fixed effects of group and time (post 10, post 20 and post 30) on the response of subjects to cTBS. Subject was included as a random effect, and data were fitted with an autoregressive (AR1) covariance structure (PASW software, version 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Mixed-model analysis was also used to compare differences in SICI and LICI between groups, assessing fixed effects of subject

group and conditioning intensity on SICI (70%, 80% PD0332991 and 90% AMT), and subject group and ISI on LICI (100 and 150 ms). Subject was again included as a random effect, and data were fitted with a diagonal covariance structure. Significant interactions were further investigated using Bonferroni corrected custom contrasts. To further investigate relationships between OSA and corticomotor excitability, linear regression of individual subject data was used to

relate indices of disease severity (AHI, ESS, O2-saturation) to baseline TMS measurements (RMT and MEP1 mV). Linear regression was also used to investigate relationships between subject characteristics and responses to cTBS. Contrasted variables included measures of baseline cortical excitability and ICI, physical activity (work, sport, leisure), anthropometric (weight, BMI and age) and polysomnography data (AHI, AI, sleep efficiency, respiratory data and sleep stage). Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons. Data are shown as mean ± SEM in Flucloronide figures, and mean ± SD in tables and text. Two control subjects showed evidence of OSA on diagnostic testing (AHI = 15.8 and 20.1 events/h) and were excluded from any further analysis. One patient with OSA was unable to complete the TMS session due to a high TMS threshold that resulted in discomfort caused by facial muscle activation. Subsequently, all data from this subject were excluded from the analysis. One control subject showed a marked increase in MEPs after cTBS, with MEP amplitudes at all time points more than three SDs away from the group mean.

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