, 1994b; Wheeler & Blanchard, 2005): the aspartokinase reaction i

, 1994b; Wheeler & Blanchard, 2005): the aspartokinase reaction involving the phosphorylation of l-aspartate by ATP, with the subsequent conversion of β-aspartyl phosphate to l-aspartic-β-semialdehyde by the aspartate semialdehyde

dehydrogenase (Asd) (Pavelka & Jacobs, 1996). Unlike other bacteria that have multiple aspartokinase genes that encode enzymes that are differentially CP-868596 solubility dmso regulated by the end products of these amino acid pathways, there is only one mycobacterial ask gene (Wheeler & Blanchard, 2005). In Mycobacterium smegmatis, ask expression yields three differentially regulated aspartokinase isoenzymes (Sritharan et al., 1989; Pavelka & Jacobs, 1996; Pavelka, 2000). The cloning and sequencing of the ask–asd operon of M. smegmatis has been reported (Cirillo et al., 1994b). There is no structural representative of Rv3709c in the Protein Data Bank, although a recent crystallization report

for the β subunit has been published (Schuldt et al., 2011), but it shares ~70% identity with the Corynebacterium glutamicum Ask, whose structure www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD8055.html reveals a unique α2β2 heterotetramer distinct from other aspartokinase structures: the larger α subunit is the translated product of the entire open reading frame, while the smaller β subunit is a shorter, in-frame translation product from the same gene (Cirillo et al., 1994b). The amino terminus of the mycobacterial Ask protein sequence Avelestat (AZD9668) is highly conserved across species, particularly between positions 198 through to 207, suggesting that these residues are catalytically important (Cirillo et al., 1994b). The relatively less conserved carboxy-terminal region is thought to be involved in maintaining the aspartokinase tertiary structure but is catalytically dispensible (Cirillo et al., 1994b). The aspartate pathway is essential in M. smegmatis (Pavelka & Jacobs, 1996). The first mycobacterial DAP auxotrophic mutant generated in M. smegmatis with a disruption in the ask gene causing

lysis upon meso-DAP deprivation could be complemented with the wild-type ask gene (Pavelka & Jacobs, 1996; Pavelka et al., 1997). Asd from M. tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized (Shafiani et al., 2005; Vyas et al., 2008). Asd has a molecular weight of 38 kDa and is a homodimer (Vyas et al., 2008). The purified Mt-Asd is functionally active where the Kcat is 8.49 s−1. The Km and Vmax values in the direction reverse to DAP synthesis for all three substrates l-aspartate semialdehyde, NADP+ and Pi have been determined (Shafiani et al., 2005). A crystallization report for Mt-Asd exists, with data to 2.18 Å (Fig. 2) (Vyas et al., 2008), the associated as yet unpublished structure sharing structural homology to an Asd from Streptococcus pneumoniae (Singh et al., 2008). Mt-Asd has an N-terminal NADP-binding domain and a dimerization domain (Shafiani et al., 2005).

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