(C) 2013 IBRO Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Altered expression and function have been observed in bladder cancer. We analyzed the expression profile of a group of miRNAs involved

in bladder cancer angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, tumor suppressor inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis activation. Prognostic and diagnostic value, and validated targets were further examined.

Materials and Methods: Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction 77 bladder cancer cases and 77 matched tumor associated normal samples were investigated to determine the expression P-gp inhibitor of miR-10b, 19a, 19b, 21, 126, 145, 205, 210, 221, 296-5p and 378. The relationship between miRNA expression, patient survival and tumor pathological features was also examined.

Results: miR-10b, 19a, 126, 145, 221, 296-5p AG-014699 ic50 and 378 were significantly down-regulated in bladder cancer compared to adjacent normal urothelium. miR-145 was the

most down-regulated microRNA of this group. miR-19b, 21, 205 and 210 showed no significant difference between the 2 tissue types. High miR-21 expression correlated with worse overall patient survival (p = 0.0099). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-21, 210 and 378 may serve as independent prognostic factors for overall patient survival (p = 0.005, 0.033 and 0.012, respectively). miR-21 and 378 may serve as independent secondly prognostic factors for recurrence (p = 0.030 and 0.031, respectively). miR-145, 221, 296-5p and 378 showed the best combined ROC curves for specificity and sensitivity. miRWalk analysis

was used to identify validated miRNA target genes. Further Gene Ontology enrichment revealed the main classes of biological functions of these validated targets.

Conclusions: Most miRNAs analyzed are down-regulated in bladder cancer. They may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in the future.”
“Background. Preparing for potentially threatening events in the future is essential for survival. Anticipating the future to be unpleasant is also a cognitive key feature of depression. We hypothesized that ‘pessimism’-related emotion processing would characterize brain activity in major depression.

Method. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, depressed patients and a healthy control group were cued to expect and then perceive pictures of known emotional valences pleasant, unpleasant and neutral and stimuli of unknown valence that could have been either pleasant or unpleasant. Brain activation associated with the ‘unknown’ expectation was compared with the ‘known’ expectation conditions.


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