Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus is an obligately anaerobic butyrate-

Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus is an obligately anaerobic butyrate-forming, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the rumen. Originally classified as Clostridium proteoclasticum (Attwood et al., 1996) and isolated because of its protein-degrading ability (Attwood & Reilly, 1996), it has been reclassified recently as B. proteoclasticus (Moon et al., 2008). Although it is likely that B. proteoclasticus was originally classified as the genus Fusocillus (Kemp et al., 1975; Wallace et al., 2006), these cultures could not Metformin cost be resuscitated from culture

collections. In addition to protein degradation, B. proteoclasticus is able to utilize hemicellulose (xylan) as a major growth substrate (Attwood et al., 1996; Moon et al., 2008). We have recently sequenced the genome of the type strain B. proteoclasticus B316T (Kelly et al., 2010) in an RAD001 solubility dmso attempt to further elucidate its role in plant fibre degradation, with an aim to exploit its genome to improve ruminant

animal productivity. Analysis of the 4.4-Mb B316T genome (39 G+C%) indicates that it is composed of four separate replicons: a main chromosome, a chromid (Harrison et al., 2010) and two megaplasmids, of approximately 3.55 Mb, 302 kb, 361 kb (pCY360) and 186 kb (pCY186), respectively (Kelly et al., 2010) (Table 1). Vectors suitable for gene transfer or gene expression in Butyrivibrio species are not well developed and hence there have been few genetic studies with Butyrivibrio species. Some shuttle vectors have been generated (Ware et al., 1992; Beard et al., 1995; Kobayashi et al., 1995; Gobius et al., 2002), but, most likely due to the diverse nature of the various Butyrivibrio species (Moon et al., 2008), effective transfer

between different host strains is limited. Previous work has, however, shown that the transposon Tn916 (18.032 kb) can be introduced by conjugal transfer to rumen bacteria such as Butyrivibrio species from an Enterococcus faecalis donor (Hespell & Whitehead, 1991). The use of Tn916 offers a convenient mechanism by which foreign DNA can be introduced into Butyrivibrio species for mutagenesis studies. Moreover, previous studies from our laboratory using B. proteoclasticus have Sunitinib manufacturer refined the methodology by which conjugation and transconjugant selection can be performed (Hussein et al., 2008) and used metabolomics to propose a putative gene function for Tn916 mutants (Villas-Bôas et al., 2008). In light of the unique genomic arrangement of B316T, this work aimed to determine the insertion characteristics in each of the four replicons and to investigate the use of Tn916 as a tool for generating a panel of mutants to assist with assigning gene function. Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316T was grown anaerobically using RGM or DM media (Hespell & Whitehead, 1991), or TYAR medium (Hussein et al., 2008).

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