9 Each of our two cases occurred in the rainy season, but we shou

9 Each of our two cases occurred in the rainy season, but we should always be reminded that there are seasonal areas such as Texas and year-round Selleckchem CP-868596 critical areas such as Hawaii.1 The incubation period of murine typhus is 7 to 14 days and many cases are said to be mild. Bernabeu-Wittel and colleagues reported that serious cases accounted for as few as four of 104 reported.10 Many of the symptoms are nonspecific and because there are no distinctive bites found, as in the case of scrub typhus, the organism enters from wounds on human skin via flea feces, and hence it is difficult to diagnose. However, complications of case 1 included liver dysfunction, platelet reduction, and kidney dysfunction, and the patient’s condition

became grave, although antimicrobial treatment was effective. Meanwhile,

case 2, who returned from the same area in the same season and was of the same age, had mild symptoms and tended to improve without antimicrobial agents or treatments. As Southeast Asia is also an endemic area of dengue fever, to consider murine typhus as a differential diagnosis Selleckchem PD0325901 is important. Tetracyclines are effective antimicrobial agents and patients are said to improve after about 3 days of treatment, similar to case 1 who improved soon after minocycline administration began. Rickettsial infections are generally considered rare among cases of infectious disease, but as the diagnosis requires antibody and PCR tests, they may be underdiagnosed. Case 1 in this report was identified by PCR with skin specimens from eruptions, which is an important means of diagnosis for difficult cases. As we have reported, rickettsial infections have various symptoms, which differ in seriousness, and it is difficult to know their frequencies. Therefore it is necessary to consider them in the differential diagnoses of patients with fever and to administer appropriate antimicrobial agents science as required, because we do believe that most cases of mild murine typhus may be missed in endemic areas

around the world, and especially those with marine resorts. The authors wish to thank Dr. Koichiro Kudo, Director, Disease Control and Prevention Center, International Medical Center of Japan, and Dr. Shinichi Oka, Director, AIDS Clinical Center, International Medical Center of Japan, for their critical review of the manuscript. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest. “
“We report the case of two brothers who returned from Madagascar presenting all the acute phase symptoms of a primary invasive Schistosoma mansoni infection, together with brain involvement characterized by acute encephalitis. This rarely described issue should be considered in travelers returning from endemic areas with acute neurological symptoms. Schistosomiasis is recognized as being of growing concern for persons traveling to endemic countries.1 Neurological complications of schistosomiasis may occur in the preliminary stages of infection, as well as later on.

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