burgdorferi that were independent of bacterial doubling time and

burgdorferi that were independent of bacterial doubling time and the down-regulation of rRNA during stationary phase is similar to results obtained with Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium cultured in the same medium at different temperatures [40]. While cellular contents of DNA, RNA, and protein in cultures of S. Typhimurium grown in media of different nutritional content at a given temperature depended on growth rate, DNA, RNA, and protein per cell were nearly constant in cultures grown in the same medium at different temperatures https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Cisplatin.html and did not depend on growth rate [40]. We have previously shown

that (p)ppGpp is necessary for the transition between exponential and stationary phase in B. burgdorferi [19], suggesting that rRNA synthesis may not be totally independent of (p)ppGpp, and that rRNA levels may be determined by interplay between two factors in this organism, growth phase and (p)ppGpp levels. In the present study, we found that both B. burgdorferi rRNA operons were misregulated in the absence of (p)ppGpp, and failed to down-regulate 16S and 23S rRNA levels during the transition to the stationary phase. Although

our previous experiments with tick cell cultures suggested that growth-related mechanisms other than (p)ppGpp modulated rRNA synthesis in B. burgdorferi Sepantronium mw [17, 18], it is evident that the stringent response is also important for regulation of rRNA synthesis. The mechanism by which (p)ppGpp regulates rRNA synthesis in B. burgdorferi during the transition phase and what other factors might be involved in this regulation is not yet clear. The accumulation of rRNA in B. burgdorferi Δ rel Bbu suggests that this mutant behaves similarly to a VX-770 chemical structure relaxed phenotype relA mutant of E. coli (Figures 6B, C) [9, 24, 25]. This unbalanced growth may be responsible for the lack of cell division of the B. burgdorferi Δ rel Bbu mutant in the stationary phase of growth

(Figure 6A). B. burgdorferi has no homolog to the transcription factor DksA that acts as a cofactor in the repression of rRNA genes by (p)ppGpp in E. coli [10, 41, 42]. Even though B. burgdorferi codes for a homolog to the GTP-binding protein gene cgtA (BB0781) [10], this GTPase regulates (p)ppGpp levels only during exponential growth and does not Bay 11-7085 have an effect during the stringent response [43]. Although not fully characterized, the role of the stringent response in the regulation of rRNA levels during stationary phase might have an effect on the ability of B. burgdorferi to survive in flat ticks or persist in animals. This might be accomplished perhaps by slowing down protein synthesis and conserving resources until nutritional conditions improve [44–46]. Conclusions We have confirmed the prediction that B. burgdorferi rRNA genes are transcribed into three separate transcripts. We have also found that differences in expression of the rRNA operons associated with B.

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