Because of the number of patients reported in cohort series is sm

Because of the number of patients reported in cohort series is small, we cannot estimate the true rate of treatment failures, death, and other uncommon but important adverse events in the larger population of severely envenomated patients treated with FabAV. No study reported in this series examined long-term outcomes. One prior study, reported only in abstract form, has evaluated the

use of FabAV in treatment of severe crotalid envenomation[45]. In that retrospective review of poison center cases, 9.3% of crotalid envenomations were judged to be severe. Initial control was achieved in 57% of severe cases, using a mean dose of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 10.5 vials of FabAV. As with any review, the conclusions of this report are limited by the available literature. To our knowledge, the largest cohort

study of Crotaline snake bite victims treated with FabAV reported 93 cases[46]. A much larger, multi-center cohort study would be extremely useful to better define the answers to unresolved management issues. Conclusion In this integrative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical review of the published literature, treatment of severely-envenomated crotalid snake victims with FabAV was generally associated with good short-term outcomes. Persistent, recurrent, or delayed-onset venom effects, particularly thrombocytopenia and defibrination, were observed in several patients, but no patient developed bleeding complications after receiving FabAV. FabAV therapy was well-tolerated. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical FabAV therapy appears to be appropriate in the management of severely envenomated crotalid snake victims. Abbreviations FabAV: Crotaline Polyvalent Immune Fab (ovine); FDA: United BMS-907351 in vitro States Food and Drug Administration; IgG: Immunoglobulin G; INR: International normalized ratio; N/A: Not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical applicable; NPDS: National Poison Data System; NR: Not Reported; SSS: Snakebite Severity Score; TESS: Toxic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Exposures Surveillance System; US: United States (of America). Competing interests This study was supported by a grant from Protherics, Inc, manufacturer of FabAV, to the Denver Health Hospital Authority. No author or other employee of the Denver Health Hospital Authority received direct or indirect compensation as a result of

this grant or study. Authors’ contributions All Sitaxentan authors participated in study design. SLM supervised the original library search. EJL reviewed these results and selected articles for hand review and data abstraction, which was performed by EJL and THS. SLM and JK managed the database. EJL wrote the manuscript draft. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: Acknowledgements This study was supported by a grant from Protherics, Inc. The study was investigator-initiated. Industry representatives did not participate in the design, execution, or writing of the study, nor did they control the decision to publish the results.

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