, 2002; Gutierrez et al, 2005; Romano et al, 2007) Moreover, C

, 2002; Gutierrez et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2007). Moreover, C. burnetii actively

mediates the inhibition of host cell apoptosis by activating Akt and Erk1/2 (Voth & Heinzen, 2009), allowing this relatively slow-growing pathogen (10–12-h replication rate) the opportunity to replicate to high numbers before host cell lysis. These characteristics may be attributable to C. burnetii proteins containing the ankyrin repeat eukaryotic motifs, which have been shown to associate with the PV membrane, microtubules, and mitochondria when expressed ectopically within eukaryotic cells (Voth et al., 2009). In addition, recent reports show a series of C. burnetii-encoded ankyrin repeat domain-containing proteins that are secreted

into host cells by Legionella pneumophila in a type IVB secretion selleck chemicals llc system (T4BSS)-dependant manner (Pan et al., 2008; Voth et al., 2009), highlighting the versatility and importance of this secretion system. Bacterial secretion systems specifically involved in virulence include the type IV secretion systems (T4SS). The T4SSs have been subdivided into two groups: the type IVA secretion system (T4ASS), encoded by the virB operon (Sexton & Vogel, 2002), and the T4BSS (Segal et al., 1998; Vogel et al., 1998). Legionella pneumophila’s T4BSS is essential for effector protein secretion, bacterial intracellular trafficking, and replication within macrophages as well as amoeba (Marra et al., 1992; Berger & Isberg, 1993; Bruggemann et al., 2006; Ninio & Roy, 2007; Shin & Roy, 2008). Analysis of the C. burnetii RSA 493 (Nine Mile Ganetespib cell line phase I strain) genome sequence revealed loci with

significant homology Histamine H2 receptor and gene organization to both region I (RI) and region II of the L. pneumophila T4BSS (Seshadri et al., 2003). The genomic sequence, combined with studies using C. burnetii T4BSS analogs (IcmW, DotB, IcmS, and IcmT) to complement L. pneumophila mutants (Zamboni et al., 2003; Zusman et al., 2003), indicates that C. burnetii expresses a functional T4BSS during infection. Gene expression analysis of the C. burnetii T4BSS has been limited both in the number of homologs analyzed as well as the breadth of the temporal analysis. In an effort to develop an understanding of the transcriptional and translational expression of the C. burnetii T4BSS with an emphasis on early stages of the infectious cycle, we analyzed the RNA expression profile of select RI genes. The C. burnetii T4BSS RI loci contains 12 genes (CBU1652–CBU1641), nine of which are L. pneumophila T4BSS homologs (Seshadri et al., 2003). Following a synchronous infection of host cells by C. burnetii SCVs, total RNA isolated during the initial stages of the infectious cycle was used to analyze the transcription of the C. burnetii T4BSS RI homologs. Here, we provide the first demonstration of the transcriptional linkages between the C.

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