When subjects were pooled together, the gains in fat-free mass an

When subjects were pooled together, the gains in fat-free mass and muscular strength in the current investigation were similar to others. Rugby union football

players who supplemented daily with creatine monohydrate over an 8-week period decreased fat mass (−1.9 kg) and increased lean tissue (+1.2 kg). They also performed better in bench and leg press tests [15]. Older men (71 yrs) who consumed creatine increased lean tissue mass (+3.3 kg) and improved lower body strength as measured using a 1-RM [32]. Using a single-limb training model, men and women who supplemented with creatine after training of the arms increased their muscle thickness. Interestingly, males had a greater increase in lean tissue mass with creatine supplementation than females [4]. In elite male handball players, creatine supplementation for 32 days resulted in an increase in 1-RM LY2874455 chemical structure bench press (8.30 vs. 5.29 kg; creatine versus control) [33]. These and other investigations indeed show that creatine supplementation in general has a significant anabolic and performance-enhancing effect [34, 35] which is in agreement with the current investigation. Mechanistically, creatine supplementation has been shown to increase muscle fiber size, enhance myosin heavy chain protein synthesis, activate satellite cells as well as increase the concentrations of intramuscular ATP and PCr [6, 7, 12, 36, 37]. However, whether supplement

selleck inhibitor timing has a role in the adaptive response vis a

vis creatine has not been previously investigated. Certainly, the most important aspect of the current investigation is that post workout supplementation of creatine may indeed be superior to pre workout supplementation. Data on protein and amino acid supplementation indicate that indeed the pre, during and post workout window are important times to consume nutrients though some studies demonstrate a neutral effect [20–24, 38]. One study examined the effects of a solution of whey protein consumed either immediately before exercise or immediately following exercise. They found no difference in amino acid uptake between Inositol oxygenase the groups [18]. In six subjects (3 men, 3 women) that randomly consumed a treatment drink (6 g essential amino acids, 35 g sucrose) or a flavored placebo drink 1 hour or 3 hours after a bout of resistance exercise, investigators found no difference in the anabolic response whether the drink was consumed 1 hour or 3 hours post exercise [39]. Indeed, others have found that timed protein supplementation immediately before and after exercise does not further enhance muscle mass or strength in healthy elderly men who habitually consume adequate amounts of dietary protein [40]. Also, timed protein-supplement ingestion in resistance-trained athletes during a 10-week training program does not further enhance strength, power, or body-composition changes [41].

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