There is a constant increase in the proportion of women newly inf

There is a constant increase in the proportion of women newly infected with HIV in the global population; this increase is particularly high in some areas of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa. Microbicides are products that are being developed to empower women against HIV. First- and second-generation microbicides are broad-spectrum

products that include surface active agents, vaginal defense enhancers, and blocking agents. Third-generation microbicides are HIV-specific and include replication and entry inhibitors formulated as gels or as vaginal rings. However, there is a concern that antiretroviral-based microbicides could lead to drug resistance if they are used by HIV-positive women who are unaware of their HIV status. To reach the highest number of women possible, microbicides should be available over-the-counter, which might not be the case with antiretroviral-based formulations. In contrast, non-antiretroviral-based microbicides

will have the advantage of being initiated and controlled by women themselves and they will not jeopardize the use of life-saving drugs. (C) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate a new method for visualizing femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue.

SETTING: Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany.

METHOD: Lenses removed from porcine eyes were modified ex vivo by femtosecond laser

pulses SC79 purchase (wavelength 1040 nm, pulse duration 306 femtoseconds, pulse energy 1.0 to 2.5 mu J, repetition rate 100 kHz) to create defined planes at which lens fibers separate. The femtosecond laser pulses were delivered by a 3-dimension (3-D) scanning unit and transmitted by focusing optics (numerical aperture 0.18) into the lens tissue. Lens fiber orientation and femtosecond laser-induced microincisions selleckchem were examined using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) based on a Rostock Cornea Module attached to a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. Optical sections were analyzed in 3-D using Amira software (version 4.1.1).

RESULTS: Normal lens fibers showed a parallel pattern with diameters between 3 mu m and 9 mu m, depending on scanning location. Microincision visualization showed different cuffing effects depending on. pulse energy of the femtosecond laser. The effects ranged from altered tissue-scattering properties with all fibers intact to definite fiber separation by a wide gap. Pulse energies that were too high or overlapped too tightly produced an incomplete cutting plane due to extensive microbubble generation.

CONCLUSIONS: The 3-D CLSM method permitted visualization and analysis of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue. Thus, 3-D CLSM may help optimize femtosecond laser-based procedures in the treatment of presbyopia.

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