The role of brain oscillations as functional building blocks in sensory-cognitive processes has gained tremendous importance in recent decades. Event-related oscillations (ERO) in the alpha, beta, gamma, delta,
and theta frequency windows are highly modified throughout the cortex in pathologic brains, in particular from patients with cognitive impairment. However, they can only be characterized as clinical biomarkers by using a wide range of strategies and mathematical parameters. The oscillatory changes in multiple frequency windows and whole cortex should be taken Into consideration by analyzing relevant changes in the amplitude of function-related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical oscillations, together with multiple connectivity deficits. The aims of this article are threefold: To FK228 supplier briefly describe the main methods used in the brain research literature, such as evoked/event-related spectra, ERO, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coherence analysis, and phase locking; to illustrate their clinical applications using the example of bipolar disorder
(BD); and to show how this might inform the search for neurophysiologic biomarkers in cognitive impairment.1 To explain the importance, for the design of (differential) diagnostic strategies and (preventive) drug schedules, of analyzing neurophysiologic information in a framework that includes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical multiple methods and frequency bands. To propose a practical approach to the analysis and interpretation of brain oscillations. See Box 1 for a glossary of key terms used. Box 1 Alpha response: Oscillatory component of an evoked potential (EP) in the 8-13 Hz frequency range. Amplitude frequency Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical characteristics (AFC): The spectra of evoked responses in the frequency
domain potentials. Coherence analysis: A mathematical approach to examining the relationship between signals or data sets. Event-related oscillations (ERO): These include event-related potentials (ERP) and induced rhythms. Event-related potential (ERP): The measured Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical brain response resulting directly from a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event Evoked frequency response: Dominant maximum in amplitude frequency characteristics. Delta response: Oscillatory component of an evoked potential in the 0.5-3.5 Hz frequency range. Gamma response: Oscillatory component Rutecarpine of an evoked potential in the 30-60 Hz frequency range. Magnetoencephalography: A research and clinical imaging technique for measuring the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain. Neural oscillation: Rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. Phase-locked and non phase-locked activity: Non phase-locked activities contain evoked oscillations that are not rigidly time-locked to the moment of stimulus delivery. They include induced alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations that may relate to specific aspects of information processing.